Tips on Proofreading the Literature in APA Format Also, if the author wants to make a good impression, his work should be all polished, without any mistake of any type, especially grammar, and typos. The presence of this kind of errors would make the research be seen as less credible and serious, losing the importance and sometimes even changing the whole purpose or meaning of the subject.
Place an Order To avoid these, here are some tips to proofread better: Printing the work Reading the work on a paper is pretty different than reading on a screen.
The paper gives a little more depth to the understanding of the subject and makes easier the spotting errors activity. If the reviewers or scholars are going to read a printed version of your work, you should always be the first one to do it in order to spot the mistakes, if there are any. If the person focuses on whole paragraphs or texts, mistakes would be hard to spot and would force the author not skip anything, as skipping could be the first enemy of proofreading.
By reading every word and sentence as it comes without speeding or skipping, the less likely you are to pass on a mistake. This also gives more comprehension on the reading, making it easier to spot grammar and syntax mistakes. Make others proofread your work If you make other people, especially the ones with experience on the field and with knowledge on the area, a different pair of eyes would also help at spotting errors. This would make your work look better and be more comprehensive to the reader, especially if the person who proofreads knows all about the APA style.
Proofread Never skip anything on the proofreading. This can be done by remembering the details of APA Style, always taking into account the important ones. Also, by proofreading from top to bottom and from bottom to top, the process would have better comprehension, even if it looks tedious. Awesome turnaround time from the writer, and great communication as always from both the writer and customer service associate.
Dorothy, USA I will be reading my paper shortly. But It appears perfect, of which I thank you. I would like to thank Odri Harrison for being so kind. Thank you all so much. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study.
These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature. When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework.
Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review.
If you are using an electronic form of note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field e. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work.
Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format Galvan recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review.
If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors e.
Research methods Summary of research results Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review.
The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus.
You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations like an annotated bibliography. Galvan captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: " The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material.
Consider whether your sources are current Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.
In the sciences, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies. Information even two years old could be obsolete. However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period.
Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to consider what is currently of interest to scholars in this field and what is not.
Strategies for writing the literature review Find a focus A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. This means that you will not just simply list your sources and go into detail about each one of them, one at a time.
As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. Do they present one or different solutions? Is there an aspect of the field that is missing? How well do they present the material and do they portray it according to an appropriate theory? Do they reveal a trend in the field? A raging debate? Pick one of these themes to focus the organization of your review. Here are a couple of examples: The current trend in treatment for congestive heart failure combines surgery and medicine.
More and more cultural studies scholars are accepting popular media as a subject worthy of academic consideration. Now what is the most effective way of presenting the information? What are the most important topics, subtopics, etc.
And in what order should you present them? The following provides a brief description of the content of each: Introduction: Gives a quick idea of the topic of the literature review, such as the central theme or organizational pattern. Body: Contains your discussion of sources and is organized either chronologically, thematically, or methodologically see below for more information on each.
Where might the discussion proceed? Organizing the body Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper. Create an organizational method to focus this section even further. But these articles refer to some British biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century. So you check those out. Then you look up a book written in with information on how sperm whales have been portrayed in other forms of art, such as in Alaskan poetry, in French painting, or on whale bone, as the whale hunters in the late 19th century used to do.
This makes you wonder about American whaling methods during the time portrayed in Moby Dick, so you find some academic articles published in the last five years on how accurately Herman Melville portrayed the whaling scene in his novel.
Now consider some typical ways of organizing the sources into a review: Chronological: If your review follows the chronological method, you could write about the materials above according to when they were published. For instance, first you would talk about the British biological studies of the 18th century, then about Moby Dick, published in , then the book on sperm whales in other art , and finally the biology articles s and the recent articles on American whaling of the 19th century.
But there is relatively no continuity among subjects here. Thus, the review loses its chronological focus. By publication: Order your sources by publication chronology, then, only if the order demonstrates a more important trend. By trend: A better way to organize the above sources chronologically is to examine the sources under another trend, such as the history of whaling. Then your review would have subsections according to eras within this period.
For instance, the review might examine whaling from pre, , and Under this method, you would combine the recent studies on American whaling in the 19th century with Moby Dick itself in the category, even though the authors wrote a century apart. Thematic: Thematic reviews of literature are organized around a topic or issue, rather than the progression of time.
However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. For instance, the sperm whale review could focus on the development of the harpoon for whale hunting.
.You can record the topics in the same box as before User 1 or use User 2 box for the topic s under which you have chosen to place this article. While the study focuses on one topic, harpoon technology, it will still be organized chronologically. Organizing the body Once you have the basic categories in place, then you must consider how you will present the sources themselves within the body of your paper. Do they present one or different solutions?
.Dorothy, USA I will be reading my paper shortly. Also, by proofreading from top to bottom and from bottom to top, the process would have better comprehension, even if it looks tedious. However, this reference list should have all the important details of the work cited, from title to author, an editorial of the published book and publication date. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates. However, these tips will also be a great help in a creative way, providing aid to the writer to make his work look better and be more appealable.
And in what order should you present them? Make others proofread your work If you make other people, especially the ones with experience on the field and with knowledge on the area, a different pair of eyes would also help at spotting errors. However, this reference list should have all the important details of the work cited, from title to author, an editorial of the published book and publication date. The sources support what Falk and Mills are saying. However, you may pick any scholarly topic.
New York: Harcourt Brace, This means that the person should never have to put together a series of unrelated studies on a field, but represent and analyze an idea, starting from the point of a previously developed question, giving some answer to it and proving its importance. A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. However, you may pick any scholarly topic.
Strategies for writing the literature review Find a focus A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. And in what order should you present them? The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. I asked for things to be changed a bit, and within hours it was done.
As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors e. But these articles refer to some British biological studies performed on whales in the early 18th century.
In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study.
In the sciences, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies. Research methods Summary of research results Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. Upper Saddle River, N. How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. Clarify If your assignment is not very specific, seek clarification from your instructor: Roughly how many sources should you include?