The new CAT policy explicitly includes, for the first time, a reference to economic security as a part of our national security goals, but we have been taking this premise to heart for some time now and engaging in an ongoing effort to reform our practices and processes to facilitate exports of defense systems to valued foreign partners.
By the same token, as the new UAS policy demonstrates, we are eager to expand the space for U. The policy continues to require case-by-case review of military UAS sales to consider all U. The Administration is intent on ensuring that U.
When the State Department evaluates each potential sale or export, in accordance with the CAT policy, we weigh important factors, including the suitability of the transfer in responding to legitimate U. We are communicating with our colleagues from the House Foreign Affairs and the Senate Foreign Relations Committees on an almost daily basis as part of the Congressional Notification process, which is required by law for arms transfers that meet certain thresholds.
I will say that we take our role in the regulation of arms transfers very seriously. This is why we have worked closely with the White House to help drive this new policy forward, knowing that we must shape our policies and processes to meet both the challenges of today and prepare for what is over the horizon.
In anticipation of these new policies, my PM colleagues and I have been exploring ways to cut red tape and give U. We are now responsible for reporting back to the President within 60 days with a plan for implementing the CAT Policy.
Which brings us to why we are here today. Many Department of Defense DoD non-dilutive funding opportunities require applicants to submit white papers occasionally referred to as concept papers prior to completing a full application. This saves time and money for both the DoD by not having to review as many full applications and companies by only completing full applications if invited.
White papers are also frequently sent to DoD researchers as the initial step in assessing their collaboration interests. First, by clearly explaining the problem, the approach to solve it, the attendant goals of the research, and the required time and funding, the program officer is provided with a clear picture of a proposed project.
Second, white papers and proposals are not only read by the program officer to whom they are submitted, but by their successors, program officers managing related programs, high-level technical managers, and contracting personnel. Therefore, well prepared documents convey the sum and substance of a proposed or funded project and do not compel a reader to ask for clarification from the program officer or the organization from which it originated.
Finally, a well-prepared document reflects well upon the principal investigator and their organization. Proposals White papers are used to present possible research projects to DoD or military-assisting Federal Agencies to assess an interest in, or possibility of, funding a specific research project. White papers include a statement of the technical problem, the possible military benefit, a proposed approach to a solution, and a brief statement of costs.
In determining the respective functions of the Secretariat and Defence Headquarters, there are two basic guidelines. First, civilians formulate defence policy and the military executes this policy. Second, civilians are responsible for the political dimensions of defence.
This breakdown does not prevent military officers from contributing to policy formulation on the basis of their functional expertise. It is intended that a large number of posts, of which the greater number will be in the Financial Section, will be transferred from Defence Headquarters to the Secretariat.
The Minister aims to staff these posts predominantly with civilians. The composition of the Secretariat will be broadly representative of the racial and gender composition of South African society.
This will be achieved through selective recruitment, accelerated training, civilianisation of present incumbents and lateral entry.
Senior military officers are not precluded from being seconded to work in the Secretariat on the basis of their functional expertise. Stable civil-military relations depend to a great extent on the professionalism of the armed forces.
The challenge is to define and promote an approach to military professionalism which is consistent with democracy, the Constitution and international standards. More specifically, the professionalism required of the regular and part-time components of the SANDF includes the following political, ethical and organisational features: This will serve as a basic unifying force which transcends cultural, racial and other potentially divisive factors.
Education and training programmes within the SANDF are a cardinal means of building and maintaining a high level of professionalism. In this regard the Constitution provides that all members of the SANDF "shall be properly trained in order to comply with international standards of competency" [Section 5 ].
At the heart of training is the preparation of officers and other ranks to fulfil the SANDF's primary function of defence against external military aggression. In addition, special education and training programmes are required to standardise procedures following the integration of the statutory and non-statutory forces; to facilitate an equal opportunity programme and upgrade the skills of black soldiers, women soldiers and other disadvantaged service personnel [Chapter 6]; and to meet the particular needs of an all-volunteer force [Chapter 6].
Specific training programmes will be introduced to prepare military personnel for regional security co-operation and involvement in international peace support operations [Chapter 5]. Education and training will also play an essential role in developing the political and ethical dimensions of military professionalism.
The Minister has established a work group for this purpose. The mission of the civic education programme is to instill respect amongst military personnel and other members of the DOD for the core values of a democratic South Africa through appropriate education and training. These values derive principally from the Constitution. They include respect for human rights, the rights and duties of soldiers, the rule of law, international law, non-partisanship, non-discrimination, and civil supremacy over the armed forces.
The programme will cover the following subjects: the key elements of the political process in a democracy; the constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and defence; the significance of the Constitution as supreme law; the principles of democratic civil-military relations; international law on armed conflict; respect for multi-cultural diversity and gender equality; and the normative dimensions of military professionalism. This programme will extend to all members of the DOD but will necessarily be tailored according to function and rank.
It will encompass short-term orientation courses; adapting the development programmes of Officers, Warrant Officers and other ranks; and reorientating tertiary level education and the Military Academy. The civic education programme will be integrated into all aspects of education and training rather than be treated as an isolated subject. It will be applied to the military context through lectures, simulated exercises and case studies.
Civic education will also be regarded as a process which entails the translation of taught values into lived values. The Minister recognises that the programme will have no value if misconduct is in any way sanctioned by the military or civilian authority. The institutional culture of the SANDF will only be imbued with respect for human rights and the rule of law if its members are subject to disciplinary action in the event of abuses. The SANDF, together with the International Committee of the Red Cross, is currently developing a comprehensive curriculum on international humanitarian law and international law on armed conflict.
South Africa's Constitution, as with other democratic constitutions, seeks to establish stable civil-military relations by subjecting the SANDF to the control of the elected civilian authority. Such control is deemed vital because armed forces typically have a substantial capacity for organised violence. However, the government recognises that civil-military relations will only be stable if the requisite control is accompanied by the fulfilment of certain responsibilities towards the SANDF and its members.
These responsibilities include the following: It will also ensure that demobilised and rationalised soldiers, as well as veterans from the former statutory and non-statutory forces, are properly integrated into civilian society.
The Chairperson of the Council of Military Veterans' Organisations serves as the Minister's adviser on military veterans affairs.
A directorate for military veterans affairs will be established within the Defence Secretariat. Certain exceptions to this principle will be necessary because of the unique nature of armed forces and military service. The exceptions will be limited and specific, and will be covered in defence legislation. The exceptions will also be subject to the constitutional provisions on limitation of fundamental rights.
Such limitations are only permissible if they are reasonable, justifiable in an open and democratic society, and do not negate the essential content of the right in question. Military personnel are entitled to vote and to be members of the political party of their choice. However, as noted above, the Constitution provides that no member of the Regular Force shall hold office in any political party or political organisation.
Military personnel shall not attend political meetings in uniform save where they are on official duty. The Constitution provides that a member of the SANDF "shall be obliged to comply with all lawful orders but shall be entitled to refuse to execute any order if the execution of such order would constitute an offence or would breach international law on armed conflict binding on the Republic" [Section 7 ].
Military personnel shall be obliged to report unlawful orders and actions to an appropriate military authority. The constitutional provision stated above will be applied strictly and its implications for military operations will be conveyed to all officers, warrant-officers and other ranks in the course of their training and education.
In accordance with the Constitution, the SANDF shall promote freedom of religion and shall cater for the different religious views of its members on an inter-denominational basis. Religious observances shall be conducted on an equitable basis, and attendance at such observances shall be free and voluntary. The Chaplains Service shall regulate religious policy and practice in accordance with departmental policy and in consultation with the Religious Advisory Boards which represent different faiths.
The SANDF shall respect the constitutional provision on language and shall endeavour to cater for the different languages of its members. Instruction, command and control shall be conducted in a language that is commonly understood by all. In accordance with the Constitution, the SANDF shall not discriminate against any of its members on the grounds of sexual orientation.
The Minister shall appoint a work group to facilitate and monitor the implementation of the policy outlined above regarding religion, language and sexual orientation. The Military Disciplinary Code is currently being revised to bring it into line with the Constitution. The unique requirements of the military justice system will be taken into account. The SANDF shall conduct itself with honour and dignity, and shall abide by the provisions of the Bill of Fundamental Rights, in its interaction with civil society.
Military personnel shall treat civilians with courtesy and respect in the performance of their duties. The Minister and the DOD shall consult with interest groups and stakeholders in civil society in the formulation of defence policy, and shall provide the public with adequate information on defence matters. The ending of apartheid and the establishment of democracy have given rise to dramatic changes in the external strategic environment from the perspective of South Africa. The country is no longer isolated internationally.
South Africa is in fact expected to play an active role in these forums, especially with regard to peace and security in Africa and in Southern Africa in particular. There are expectations that South Africa will become involved in multi-national peace support operations on the continent. South Africa does not now, and will not in the future, have aggressive intentions towards any state.
The longer term future cannot be determined with any degree of certainty because international relations are unpredictable. They are characterised by both co-operation and competition around political, military, economic, environmental and other issues.
There is the risk of armed hostilities in some parts of the world, and a high level of political cohesion in others. A number of prominent trends in the international system are discernible since the ending of the Cold War: 5. They arise from internal ethnic, religious and other divisions, and in some instances have led to the disintegration of states. Such conflicts are increasingly being regarded as regional and international concerns.
New regional blocs and international organisations have been formed, with particular emphasis on the facilitation of inter-state trade. Moreover, there is widespread concern amongst African leaders that the continent has been marginalised in world political and economic affairs.
These concepts are now viewed in a holistic way. As outlined in Chapter 2, the security of people and the non-military dimensions of security have gained prominence. This had led to efforts, with mixed results, to convert armaments industries to civilian production. At the same time, the major arms suppliers are offloading surplus stock at a relatively cheap price in the developing world, compounding the problem of arms proliferation.
The following conclusions for the defence sector are drawn from this overview of the external environment. The details of this process will be spelt out in the Defence Review. Such capability cannot be created from scratch if the need suddenly arises. The maintenance and development of weapons systems is necessarily a long-term endeavour.
The concept of a core defence capability is discussed in Chapter 5. The question of regional security is discussed in more detail below.
South Africa is a member of a number of multi-lateral arms control regimes, and has recently introduced new policy on national arms control. The most significant strategic development over the past few years is South Africa's new status in Southern Africa, previously an arena of intense conflict. With the election of the Government of National Unity, relations with neighbouring states have changed from suspicion and animosity to friendship and co-operation.
The region as a whole has undergone substantial change since the end of the Cold War. Considerable progress has been made towards the resolution of internal conflicts, the establishment of democratic political systems, and demilitarisation and disarmament.
The prospects for regional peace and stability are greater today than at any other time in recent decades. Nevertheless, much of the sub-continent is stricken by chronic underdevelopment and the attendant problems of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment. There are large numbers of refugees and displaced people; an acute debt crisis; widespread disease and environmental degradation; and a proliferation of small arms.
Certain states remain politically volatile. The worst case scenario, as was experienced most intensely in Angola and Mozambique, is civil war. These phenomena are not confined to national borders. They impact negatively on neighbouring states in the form of a range of non-military threats: environmental destruction, the spread of disease, the burden of refugees, and cross-border trafficking in drugs, stolen goods and small arms.
Regional instability and underdevelopment can only be addressed meaningfully through political reform, socio-economic development and inter-state co-operation in these spheres. Similarly, the prevention and management of inter- and intra-state conflict is primarily a political and not a military matter.
In essence, the SADC states should shape their political, security and defence policies in co-operation with each other. This does not preclude the conclusion of bilateral and trilateral security agreements. A common approach to security in Southern Africa is necessary for a number of reasons. First, many of the domestic threats to individual states are shared problems and impact negatively on the stability of neighbouring countries.
Second, it is possible that inter-state disputes could emerge in relation to refugees, trade, foreign investment, natural resources and previously suppressed territorial claims.
Further, the Minister will submit to Parliament detailed proposals on important matters such as demobilisation and rationalisation; equal opportunity and affirmative action; military education and training; the Part-Time Force; and weapons acquisitions programmes. The following guidelines will govern these situations: the employment should be requested of the DOD by the relevant government department; it should have the consent of the affected community; it should have a limited time duration; and it should be subject to civilian control. Over ninety written submissions were received, and the parliamentary Joint Standing Committee on Defence held three special sessions on the draft.
White paper templates can and frequently doe change, if they are even required as part of the submission process, so it is important to follow the template instructions laid out in solicitation-specific application instructions. Focus on the mission of the particular agency you are applying to. However, the following are generally applicable to white papers prepared for biomedical research projects solicited by the DoD: Restricted Length White papers are usually required to be kept very short pages , though occasionally they are allowed to be up to 5 pages or more.