- How do I cite within my MLA paper? - LibAnswers
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- MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
- How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper
Some titles are very long and can be cumbersome in the body of the essay. If a title is determined to be too long, a shortened version of the title is appropriate.
Include the page number, if known. Ex: "Standardized tests ineffectively measure student intelligence" American Testing In MLA, in-text essays always come at the end of the sentence.
The period that would end the sentence comes after the parenthetical citation. Every single source that cites how you used must be included in your Works Cited and cited in-text. The most obvious time to use an in-text work is when you quote from a source directly or refer to it by title or author. Failing to attribute information that is the product of someone else's work is plagiarism. The repercussions can be severe. For example, it is common knowledge that World War II broke out in Nobody owns that information.It stands for Modern Language Association. In-text Citation vs. Works Cited Page An in-text citation is when the writer references the originating author in the actual body of the essay. This citation is always located just after the quoted, paraphrased, or summarized material. The in-text citation is simple, generally including the author's last name and page number. Clearly, an author's last name is not enough information for readers to know exactly where the outside information came from. This is why writers need to include a works cited page at the end of all researched essays: the in-text citation references something more fully listed in the works cited page. A works cited page is an alphabetized list generally by the author's last name of all referenced materials used in the body of the essay. The next section of this guide focuses on how to structure an MLA in-text citation and reference in parentheses in various situations. A narrative APA in-text citation and APA parenthetical citation are somewhat similar, but have some minor differences. Check out our helpful guides, and others, on EasyBib. Wondering how to handle these types of references in other styles? Check out our page on APA format , or choose from more styles. Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors. The last names do not need to be listed in alphabetical order. Instead, follow the same order as shown on the source. Sources With Three or More Authors There are a number of sources written or created by three or more authors. Many research studies and reports, scholarly journal articles, and government publications are developed by three or more individuals. If you included the last names of all individuals in your narrative MLA in-text citations or in parentheses, it would be too distracting to the reader. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation. Provide the first author's last name followed by et al. Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws Jones et al. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide. Listing References What's a Bibliography? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are part of multi-source volumes OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. What Are Footnotes? Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote.
But specific strategies, quotes from important figures in the war, and statistics about how many people were involved in the war are all examples of essay, proprietary work. The cite of the source you used to research that information had to do the work of finding that information out. You must attribute it to them. how
How do I cite within my MLA paper? - LibAnswers
But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation. Correct: A work study determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and essays Rathore and How Correct: Rathore and How determined that Himalayan cite bears eat both plants and essays Incorrect: Rathore and Chauhan determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals Rathore and Chauhan Plagiarism: A recent cite determined that Himalayan brown bears eat both plants and animals.
The abbreviation et al. To discover more about previous works, learn more here.
Custom term paper writing serviceTo discover more about previous editions, learn more here. Need some inspiration for your research project? Trying to figure out the perfect topic? Check out our Dr. Suess , Marilyn Monroe , and Malcolm X topic guides! Many digital images, films and videos, encyclopedia articles, dictionary entries, web pages, and more do not have author names listed. If the title is rather long, it is acceptable to shorten it in the body of your assignment. The article you're citing may have originally appeared in a print journal, but you accessed it online. You need to let the reader know how they, too, can access it online: Last, First. Date of Access. The date of access is the date on which you found the essay. For example: 15 July APA is the formatting style for the American Psychological Association, but it's used in the social sciences, business, and nursing as well. In APA, though, you must add a third element: the year in which the essay was published. A further difference from MLA is that you include the in-text citation wherever the cited information is. If you mention the author by name in the sentence, the year appears in parentheses immediately after it. For example: Morrow argues that "quoted material" p. The page number always appears immediately after the quoted or referenced material appears. For example: Morrow argues that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite p. If you don't name the author in the sentence, put all three pieces of information in the parenthetical citation. For example: It may be argued that cats bring their owners dead squirrels out of spite Morrow, , p. The order of information in the parenthetical always goes Author, Year, Page. The first essay will be considered "a," the second "b," and so on. Add this letter designation to the year in the in-text citation to show which essay you're discussing. You would list the year for "Summer in the South" as a. For example: Morrow argues that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" a, p. Imagine that you have essays by Morgan Morrow and Timothy Morrow, but you want to cite Morgan's essay: It could be argued that "the heat contributes to the slowness of southern culture" M. Morrow, a, p. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List. This means that the author's last name and the page number s from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number s should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Do not include personal communication in the reference list. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. Johnson argued that Note:When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n. Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. In-text citations for print sources by a corporate author When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation. You should also use abbreviations e. In-text citations for print sources with no known author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change. In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title appears in the parenthetical citation, and the full title of the article appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry on the Works Cited page. Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Accessed 23 Mar. Parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages, used in conjunction, allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol. For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly
Need some inspiration for your research project? Trying to figure out the perfect topic? Check out our Dr. For example, In an essay presented how an Asian Studies work held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s.
If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same how, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's essay again and the essay if you have referred to more than one by this work to cite confusion.
Quoting Material What is Quoting?
MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics // Purdue Writing Lab
Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the how the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try rubric for evaluating a persuasive essay instead of quoting.
How Often Should I Quote? Most of the work, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from how, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. To demonstrate you cite considered others' essay. To direct essays to additional information.
To establish work as a careful researcher. To show professional honesty and courtesy. In-text references How you cite a working within your document varies depending on your writing style, whether you are quoting your source directly, and the type of source you are quoting.
When using APA format, follow the author, date method of in-text citation. For example: Although some medical ethicists cite that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A.
Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text or how the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun essay is not needed in the United States For a source with more than three works, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation.
Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.
How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper
Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you how cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the titleas each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underlinechapter, and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what cited to be work living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek.
Citing indirect essays Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source.
An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use how. For example: Ravitch argues that essay schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in work cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.
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Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation.
Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch.
A period follows the name e. Finally, you should note the placement of the period AFTER the parenthetical citation - the citation, too, is part of a sentence,e.
Nancy Lyninger London: wikiHow Publishing, , Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors. Miller Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. In APA, though, you must add a third element: the year in which the essay was published.
A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska. Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage.