Once the lines were established, about The Census of Pakistan showed the number of displaced people in Pakistan at 7,, They were presumably Muslims who had entered Pakistan from India.
Similarly, the Census of India showed 7,, displaced people, apparently Hindus and Sikhs who had moved to India from Pakistan. It was literally rare to see a Hindu and Muslim together in a time of such anger and hate. There was nothing safe about this time and it was considered a blessing to come out alive even if in the poorest of conditions. The partition not only had an immense impact on the social aspect of the society but also on the economic aspect.
Another impact of the partition was that many of our skilled laborers were forced out of the country into the country of their ancestors. The partition of India was done in unnecessary rage over religion, society and a fight with the past that they could not let go. This partition broke the country into two parts so opposite from each other and whose hatred has not yet simmered down after all these years. This partition left so many scars on both the lands both socially and economically though the social impacts being more lasting and greater than the economic.
These social impacts have remained though not as intense or violent as in but they have not yet gone and might never end but the economic issues listed previously have been dealt and handled and now India is a major rising power in the world. Related Essays. Estimates of the death toll post-Partition range from , to two million. Many were killed by members of other communities and sometimes their own families, as well as by the contagious diseases which swept through refugee camps.
Women were often targeted as symbols of community honour, with up to , raped or abducted. What can explain this intensely violent reaction? Many of the people concerned were very deeply attached not just to religious identity, but to territory, and Britain was reluctant to use its troops to maintain law and order. The situation was especially dangerous in Punjab, where weapons and demobilised soldiers were abundant.
Decades later, tensions still run high. Gandhi himself was assassinated in January by a Hindu nationalist extremist who blamed him for being too supportive of Muslims at the time of Partition. Both states subsequently faced huge problems accommodating and rehabilitating post-Partition refugees, whose numbers swelled when the two states went to war over the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir in In early June, Mountbatten stunned everyone by announcing August 15, , as the date for the transfer of power—ten months earlier than expected.
The reasons for this haste are still the subject of debate, but it is probable that Mountbatten wanted to shock the quarrelling parties into realizing that they were hurtling toward a sectarian precipice. However, the rush only exacerbated the chaos. Cyril Radcliffe, a British judge assigned to draw the borders of the two new states, was given barely forty days to remake the map of South Asia.
None of the disputants were happy with the compromise that Mountbatten had forced on them. That same evening, as the remaining British officials in Lahore set off for the railway station, they had to pick their way through streets littered with dead bodies.
On the platforms, they found the railway staff hosing down pools of blood. Hours earlier, a group of Hindus fleeing the city had been massacred by a Muslim mob as they sat waiting for a train.
As the Bombay Express pulled out of Lahore and began its journey south, the officials could see that Punjab was ablaze, with flames rising from village after village. What followed, especially in Punjab, the principal center of the violence, was one of the great human tragedies of the twentieth century. As the peasants trudged along wearily, mounted guerrillas burst out of the tall crops that lined the road and culled them like sheep. Special refugee trains, filled to bursting when they set out, suffered repeated ambushes along the way.
All too often they crossed the border in funereal silence, blood seeping from under their carriage doors. In , Karachi, designated the first capital of Pakistan, was Delhi, the capital of independent India, was one-third Muslim. By the end of the decade, almost all the Hindus of Karachi had fled, while two hundred thousand Muslims had been forced out of Delhi.
The changes made in a matter of months remain indelible seventy years later. More than twenty years ago, I visited the novelist Ahmed Ali. Forster, and is probably still the finest novel written about the Indian capital.
Ali had grown up in the mixed world of old Delhi, but by the time I visited him he was living in exile in Karachi. All that made Delhi special has been uprooted and dispersed. So many words are lost. Yet it also transformed him into the supreme master of the Urdu short story. Before Partition, Manto was an essayist, screenwriter, and journalist of varying artistic attainment. Afterward, during several years of frenzied creativity, he became an author worthy of comparison with Chekhov, Zola, and Maupassant—all of whom he translated and adopted as models.
Although his work is still little known outside South Asia, a number of fine new translations—by Aatish Taseer, Matt Reeck, and Aftab Ahmad—promise to bring him a wider audience. Although he faced criticism and censorship, he wrote obsessively about the sexual violence that accompanied Partition. Instead, he urges us to try to understand what is going on in the minds of all his characters, the murderers as well as the murdered, the rapists as well as the raped.
Equally unexpected was the ferocity of the ensuing bloodbath.
This caused an already unraveling society to unravel the last of its binding seams. Historians are still divided on whether this rather vague demand was purely a bargaining counter or a firm objective. Ali had grown up in the mixed world of old Delhi, but by the time I visited him he was living in exile in Karachi. More than twenty years ago, I visited the novelist Ahmed Ali. The decision to partition India was not a simple decision, but, in fact, the very opposite of that; India was in a state of such mayhem that it seemed as if it would be impossible to come up with the perfect solution. However, in his speeches he made after independence, he urged all citizens of newly formed Pakistan, despite their religious backgrounds, to work together.
I shall see to it that there is no bloodshed and riot. Introduction August , the British Empire in India came to an end and two new independent countries were formed. Because of the violence and tension between the different religious groups in India and Pakistan, many people as much as eleven million were forced to leave their homes and move to their respective country The Muslim elite's position, which was reflected in the League's position, had crystallized gradually over the previous three decades, beginning with the Census of British India, which had first estimated the populations in regions of Muslim majority. All too often they crossed the border in funereal silence, blood seeping from under their carriage doors.
The Partition of India in influenced a large number of individuals Hasan I and keeps on influencing the individuals and the nations work today, and is dreaded to be more regrettable than Holocaust.