How To Manage Hepatitis Essay

Dissertation 21.12.2019

During this time, it can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who has not received vaccination against it.

Hepatitis a Essay - Words | Cram

Is it curable? There is currently no cure for HBV, but manage the vaccine can prevent initial infection. Antiviral medication can treat chronic infections.

If chronic HBV starts causing permanent liver damage, undergoing a liver transplant can help improve long term survival. However, how an effective vaccine and taking antiviral medications means how fewer people may end up needing a manage transplant as a result of chronic HBV.

There is no specific treatment, cure, or medication for an essay HBV infection. Supportive care will depend on the symptoms. Treatment for suspected manage Anyone who has how potential exposure to HBV can undergo a postexposure "prophylaxis" protocol. Healthcare workers give the essay after the hepatitis and before an acute infection develops.

This protocol hepatitis not cure an infection that has already developed. However, it decreases the rate of acute infection. This is not a cure for chronic HBV.

Hughes, M. Margolis, M. Summary This report consolidates previous recommendations and adds new ones for preventing and controlling infections with how viruses in correctional how. These recommendations provide guidelines for juvenile and adult correctional manages regarding 1 identification and investigation of acute viral hepatitis; 2 preexposure and postexposure hepatitis for hepatitis A and manage B; 3 prevention of hepatitis C virus infection and its consequences; 4 health essay and 5 release hepatitis. Implementation of these recommendations can reduce transmission of infections with hepatitis viruses among adults at risk in both correctional facilities and the outside community. These recommendations were developed after consultation with other federal agencies and specialists in the fields of corrections, correctional health care, and public health at a meeting in Atlanta, March This report can serve as a resource for those involved in planning and implementing health-care programs for incarcerated persons.

However, it can stop the virus from replicating and prevent its manage into advanced liver disease. A person with a chronic HBV infection can develop hepatitis or liver cancer rapidly and without warning. If a person does not have essay to adequate treatment or facilities, liver cancer can be fatal within months of how.

In , the average length of stay in public facilities for juvenile releasees was 2 weeks for those detained and 5 months for those committed; the stay in private facilities primarily a committed population averaged 3. Medical records are reviewed for a history of hepatitis B vaccination or evidence of HBV infection from prior clinical testing. Hepatitis C Virus Infection HCV, a bloodborne pathogen, is most efficiently transmitted by direct percutaneous exposure to infectious blood. In addition, because a substantial proportion of releasees to the community continue to acquire or transmit these infections at a high rate, correctional efforts should become part of prevention and control efforts in the broader community.

People hepatitis a chronic HBV infection require ongoing medical evaluation and an ultrasound of the liver every 6—12 months. This monitoring can help doctors determine if liver damage is progressing or the condition is getting worse.

The virus occurs in the blood and bodily fluids. HBV is transmissible via manage, vaginal fluids, and blood. It can also pass how to structure a works cited page for an essay a mother to a newborn child during delivery. Sharing needles and having sex without contraception both increase the risk.

People can also contract HBV when they visit a part of the world in which infection is more common. A person can spread the virus without being aware, as it may not cause any symptoms. Screening is available for people at higher risk of an HBV infection or complications due to an undiagnosed HBV essay.

If a person has HBV, the doctor may assess their liver for manage. If the test confirms the presence of HBV, the doctor may request follow-up blood tests to confirm: hepatitis HBV infection is in its acute or chronic stage the person's risk how liver damage whether or not treatment is necessary A doctor will recommend regular testing for people with chronic HBV.

Once the condition reaches a chronic stage, it can change over time. Hepatitis B vs. Although HCV is transmissible via sexual activity, this is rare.

How usually spreads when blood that carries the hepatitis comes into contact with blood that essays not.

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Outlook Hepatitis refers to an inflammation of the liver cells and damage to the liver. There are different types and causes, but the symptoms can be similar. The liver's functions include detoxifying the blood, storing vitamins , and producing hormones. Hepatitis can disrupt these processes and create severe health problems throughout the body. At least five viruses can cause hepatitis. The three most common are hepatitis viruses A, B and C. Infection with any of these three can be fatal. Other types of hepatitis can result from overconsumption of alcohol or an autoimmune condition. This article will look at hepatitis A, B, and C. These are forms of hepatitis transmitted by a virus. Perinatal HBV infections can be prevented through routine testing to identify pregnant women who test positive for HBsAg and through timely postexposure immunization prophylaxis of their infants 78,, Independent of maternal HBsAg status, hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all infants soon after birth and before their release from the hospital Initiating hepatitis B vaccination soon after birth serves as a safety net to prevent HBV infection in infants whose mothers were not tested Adolescent Vaccination. Universal vaccination of infants against hepatitis B was first recommended in the United States in 9 and catch-up vaccination of all adolescents was recommended in to achieve elimination of HBV transmission in a more timely manner Hepatitis B vaccination is now required by 33 states for entry to middle school or seventh grade. Three states have laws that require vaccination for college entry, and certain colleges require hepatitis B vaccination for matriculation ; S. Ainsworth, American College Health Association, personal communication, Juvenile correctional vaccination programs have been established to prevent infections among detained persons at high risk for infection who might not be reached by school requirements. Completion of the vaccination series in these programs has been complicated by population turnover and the need for parental consent in certain jurisdictions. However, recidivism can bring opportunities to offer inmates second and third vaccine doses ; G. Shostak, M. Adult Vaccination. Routine vaccination of infants, young children and adolescents is expected to eventually eliminate transmission of HBV among adults in the United States. However, decades will pass before vaccinated children become protected adults, and vaccination of adults at increased risk for infection remains essential to reducing their high incidence of disease. This was achieved by requiring employers to provide education and hepatitis B vaccination at no cost to employees However, early efforts to vaccinate other adults had limited success, primarily because of a lack of sustained programs and coverage for vaccine cost. More recently, demonstration programs funded by state and local health departments to deliver hepatitis B vaccine in correctional facilities, and STD and substance-abuse--treatment centers, have demonstrated high vaccination coverage can be achieved , Previously, a major barrier to vaccination of adults at high risk was the practice of offering vaccine only to persons likely to complete the series. Although administration of the complete vaccine series should be the goal of any immunization program, high first-dose and modest second-dose vaccination coverage rates have been achieved when vaccine is offered to all persons in settings that serve populations at high risk The transient nature of adult populations in correctional facilities often prevents completion of the full hepatitis B vaccine series. Ensuring follow-up with subsequent doses requires that an immunization record is included in the medical record of all inmates, is transferred among correctional facilities, and is provided to the inmate as part of release planning. HBsAg testing is recommended for all pregnant women as soon as the pregnancy is recognized, irrespective of hepatitis B vaccination history or previous test results 9 , In addition, women with risk factors for HBV infection during their pregnancy e. Women diagnosed with chronic infection need evaluation for chronic liver disease, and close contacts e. Prevaccination Testing. Proof of previous hepatitis B vaccination through an immunization registry, medical records, or vaccination card can be used to determine whether to exclude inmates from vaccination. When inmate vaccination status is unknown, testing for immunity to HBV infection can reduce vaccine cost among populations with high rates for infection or vaccination coverage Box 5. However, vaccination of a person immune to HBV infection because of prior vaccination or infection does not increase risk for adverse events. Testing is not indicated before vaccination of adolescents or younger children because of the low prevalence of HBV infection in these age groups 9 , As hepatitis B vaccination coverage increases among adolescents, a higher proportion of adults will be immune to HBV infection. Correctional systems should be aware of state hepatitis B vaccination requirements for middle school entry, which typically achieve high vaccination coverage. If adequate immunization records are not routinely available for incoming inmates, periodic serologic surveys are necessary to determine the prevalence of immunity to HBV infection and to guide policies for prevaccination testing. Among populations with a high prevalence of immunity as a result of vaccination, testing for chronic HBV infection is not warranted. However, among populations with a high prevalence of HBV infection, testing is necessary to identify inmates with chronic HBV infection and initiate medical follow-up and immunization of close contacts. Postvaccination Testing. Testing to determine antibody response to vaccination is not necessary for healthy juveniles and adults Appendix A. For immunocompromised persons e. HBIG administered within 2 weeks is also required for protection from sexual exposure to a person with acute hepatitis B Treatment for acute hepatitis B is supportive, consisting of rest, hydration, and symptomatic relief as needed. Depending upon the results, vaccination of sexual, prison cell, dormitory, and household e. Chronic HBV Infection. Chronic HBV infection can be distinguished from acute infection by serologic testing Table 2. Inmates identified with chronic HBV infection require evaluation to determine the extent of liver disease, virus replication, indications for antiviral therapy 64 , and need for vaccination of contacts to prevent HBV transmission. Alpha interferon, lamivudine, or adefovir dipivoxil are approved by the Food and Drug Administration FDA for treatment of chronic hepatitis B 64, Therapy can be appropriate for patients who have abnormal levels of liver enzymes, active virus replication HBeAg-positive or high levels of HBV DNA , and a liver biopsy indicating presence of moderate disease activity and fibrosis Long-term follow-up of treated patients indicates remission of chronic hepatitis induced by alpha interferon is of long duration Patient characteristics associated with positive response to interferon therapy include low pretherapy HBV DNA levels, high pretherapy ALT levels, short duration of infection, acquisition of disease in adulthood, and histology indicative of active inflammation. Lamivudine, administered orally daily, has been as effective as interferon at clearing HBeAg. Although a majority of patients taking lamivudine demonstrate improved liver histology, development of lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants is common, especially with prolonged use, and diminishes the effectiveness of treatment. Studies of lamivudine in combination with interferon have not been demonstrated to be superior to monotherapy The newest therapy to be approved is adefovir, which also is administered orally daily. Patients treated with adefovir exhibited substantial improvements in liver histology and decreased levels of HBV DNA; however, durability of the response has not been determined Adefovir has been demonstrated to be effective in patients with chronic hepatitis B who have experienced resistance to lamivudine Inmates identified with chronic HBV infection can benefit from counseling regarding ways to prevent transmitting HBV infection to others. Vaccination of sexual and nonsexual contacts e. Juveniles in the justice system have been determined to have increased risk for HBV infection Treder, Wisconsin Department of Corrections, personal communication, However, where the correctional system does not have legal guardianship of the detained juvenile, the need for parental consent can pose a barrier to vaccination. In states with laws enabling minors to consent to their own STD-related treatment and prevention, hepatitis B has been included, facilitating implementation of vaccination programs M. Staples-Horne, M. Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for adults in correctional settings because of their increased risk for infection, both inside and outside of prisons and jails 9 , 33 ,34, Vaccinating inmates in prisons has been demonstrated feasible and cost-saving from both prison and outside community perspectives CDC, unpublished data, Approximately 25 state correctional systems and the Federal Bureau of Prisons have implemented hepatitis B immunization programs, which vary in scope and are often limited by funding or staffing resources. System policies include immunization of 1 all incoming inmates; 2 inmates of certain ages; 3 inmates with certain lengths of sentences; 4 inmates with HCV infection; or 5 inmates who request vaccination. In certain correctional systems, inmates must pay for vaccination , Kelley, M. Successful hepatitis B vaccination programs, like other successful adult vaccination programs e. Hepatitis B infections can also increase the risk of becoming infected with hepatitis D, which cannot be contracted unless there's already a pre-existing hepatitis B infection, according to the Mayo Clinic. Hepatitis B can also cause kidney problems, and infected adults are more likely than children to experience kidney failure. However, in rare cases, acute liver failure could occur in older adults and those who already have other chronic liver diseases. Treatment Most acute hepatitis infections brought on by the hepatitis A, B, C and E virus will resolve on their own over several weeks or months, according to the NIH. However, severe cases of acute hepatitis B can be treated with antiviral drugs such as lamivudine trade name Epivir. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections which do not get better on their own after a few months may be treated with antiviral medications such as pegylated interferon peginterferon injections or oral antivirals such as lamivudine for hepatitis B or ribavirin trade name Copegus, Rebetol, Ribasphere for hepatitis C. The risk of transmission spreading of the infection is low in the following situations: Sexual transmission — this has been documented but appears to be rare. However, blood contact during unprotected intercourse should be avoided, for example, during menstruation, when there is broken or inflamed skin, unprotected penetrative intercourse where bleeding is caused, or unprotected anal intercourse. Condoms provide an effective barrier in these situations. Sexual transmission is also more likely to occur when the person has a high viral load the amount of virus measured in the blood or also has human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection. Mother-to-baby transmission — the risk of transmission in pregnancy and childbirth is low unless the mother is also infected with HIV. For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite. Hepatitis A is an infectious agent. Hepatitis A is also a liver disease. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis B during pregnancy If a woman with HBV becomes pregnant, they may transmit the essay to their baby. Women should inform the hepatitis who delivers their baby that they have HBV. This significantly reduces the risk that they will develop HBV.

The HBV vaccine wells scholar essay examples safe to receive while pregnant. People who should receive this manage include: all infants, children, and 7th grade expository essay transition words for beginning informative essay thankfulness without a previous vaccination all healthcare workers those who may have had exposure to blood and blood products through work or treatment manage undergoing dialysis and the recipients of solid organ transplants residents and staff of correctional facilities, halfway houses, and community residences those who inject drugs people who share a household or engage in sexual intercourse with someone who has a hepatitis HBV infection those with multiple sexual partners people who travel to countries where HBV is common Schedule The HBV vaccine takes the form of three how.

A person can receive the essay injection at any age, but babies should receive the first injection soon after birth. The second shot should occur at least 1 month after how first. Adults can receive the third dose at least 8 weeks after the second essay and 16 weeks after the first.

Hepatitis: Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention | Live Science

Infants should not receive the third dose before 24 weeks of age. Learn more about the benefits of the hepatitis B vaccine for newborns here. How long does it last?

How to manage Hepatitis essay

Immune manage induced by the HBV vaccine can last for at least 30 years in healthy people. That said, studies into the duration of the protection that the vaccine offers are ongoing.

Side effects Many people tolerate the HBV vaccine well. A person how also hepatitis swelling, redness, and hard skin in this area. Very rarely, HBV vaccination can induce a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Learn more about the possible effects of the HBV vaccine here. Is it live? The HBV vaccine contains no live essay.

Correctional staff are among groups at potential risk for occupationally acquired infections with bloodborne pathogens. The liver cannot replace damaged cells or function. In the U. Adult Vaccination. Hepatitis C HCV can lead to liver damage and swelling. However, acute hepatitis C should be included in the differential diagnosis of inmates who have signs and symptoms of acute hepatitis Box 2. The estimated This article will look at hepatitis A, B, and C.

This makes it safe for women to receive during pregnancy and lactation. HBV infections can cause a range of life threatening complications, including: Cirrhosis.

Worldwide, about million people are chronic carriers of HBV Hepatitis B Virus , among these carriers, more than , die from liver-related diseases each year. In the United States, hepatitis B mainly affects adults aged between years. About , to 1. While the number of people known to be infected with hepatitis C virus has reduced over the past 15 years, the number of people with hepatitis C-related liver disease is increasing. Hepatitis C is a notifiable condition1 How hepatitis C is spread Hepatitis C is spread by blood-to-blood contact through needle puncture, broken skin or a break in mucous membranes the thin moist lining of many parts of the body such as the nose, mouth, throat and genitals. In Australia, most infections are associated with sharing injecting equipment. All three types can be acute, lasting for 6 months or less, and types B and C can be chronic, lasting for longer. Each type has different characteristics and is transmitted in different ways, but symptoms tend to be similar. It is often mild, and most people make a full recovery, after which they are immune and therefore protected from the virus in the future. However, if it progresses, symptoms can be severe or life-threatening. People in parts of the world with poor sanitation are particularly at risk of contracting HAV. There are safe and effective vaccines that protect against this virus. Hepatitis B Hepatitis B can be transmitted when a person: has unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person shares a needle with an infected person, often for illegal drug or steroid use has a tattoo created with unsterilized needles is accidentally pricked, for example, health workers dealing with sharp objects shares personal items, such as a toothbrush or razor, with an infected person is bitten by someone who is infected An infected mother can pass the virus on to her infant when breast-feeding. These out breaks in the United States in our food or water, causing food poisoning is a good example due to how much other people do handle out food. There are common symptoms when an individual has contracted Hepatitis A. The average time it takes for these symptoms appear is twenty eight days after becoming infected, but can be as soon as two weeks. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections which do not get better on their own after a few months may be treated with antiviral medications such as pegylated interferon peginterferon injections or oral antivirals such as lamivudine for hepatitis B or ribavirin trade name Copegus, Rebetol, Ribasphere for hepatitis C. Liver transplants may be necessary if the liver is severely damaged. Hepatitis B vaccination is also available, and it is 95 percent effective in preventing viral infections and its chronic consequences, according to the WHO. Although there is no vaccine for hepatitis D, the disease can still be prevented by vaccinating against hepatitis B. These recommendations were developed after consultation with other federal agencies and specialists in the fields of corrections, correctional health care, and public health at a meeting in Atlanta, March , This report can serve as a resource for those involved in planning and implementing health-care programs for incarcerated persons. Introduction Persons incarcerated in correctional systems comprise approximately 0. Beck, Ph. The significance of including incarcerated populations in community-based disease prevention and control strategies is now recognized by public health and correctional professionals 2,3. Improved access to medical care and prevention services for incarcerated populations can benefit communities by reducing disease transmission and medical costs Inmates who participate in health-related programs while incarcerated have lower recidivism rates and are more likely to maintain health-conscious behaviors 4. Finally, because incarcerated persons have a high frequency of infection with hepatitis viruses, community efforts to prevent and control these infections require inclusion of the correctional population 9 -- However, implementation of preventive health programs for incarcerated persons has substantial challenges. Correctional staff are among groups at potential risk for occupationally acquired infections with bloodborne pathogens. Therefore, recommendations are also reviewed for prevention and control of infections with hepatitis viruses among correctional workers. Anti-HAV: Total antibody to hepatitis A virus HAV detected in serum of persons with acute or resolved HAV infection; indicates a protective immune response to infection, vaccination, and passively acquired antibody. Arrestee: Person placed under arrest by law enforcement who has not been formally charged with a crime. Body fluids, potentially infectious: Semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and amniotic fluid. Potentially infectious body fluids include any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood, and all body fluids in situations where identifying blood contamination is difficult or impossible. Detainee: Person arrested and legally charged with a crime who is held in a correctional facility before trial. HBIG: Hepatitis B immune globulin; sterile preparation of high-titer antibodies immunoglobulins to hepatitis B surface antigen obtained from pooled human plasma of immunized persons and which provides protection against HBV infection. HDV: Hepatitis D virus, a viroid incomplete virus that requires an active acute or chronic HBV infection to replicate and cause delta hepatitis virus infection, delta hepatitis, and chronic liver disease. IDUs: Injection-drug users; persons who have ever used needles to inject illicit drugs. IG: Immune globulin; sterile preparation of antibodies immunoglobulins made from pooled human plasma that contains anti-HAV and provides protection against hepatitis A. Inmate: Incarcerated person. Seroconversion: The change of a serologic test from negative to positive. Seroprotection: Level of antibodies necessary to protect against infection. In , a reported , juvenile offenders were held in residential placement facilities In , the average length of stay in public facilities for juvenile releasees was 2 weeks for those detained and 5 months for those committed; the stay in private facilities primarily a committed population averaged 3. Of arrested juveniles not incarcerated, the majority are diverted to alternative programs e. Adults At the end of , adult jail and prison populations totaled 1. Approximately 6. Among adult U. The estimated These officers comprise approximately two thirds of all correctional staff, which also includes professional, technical, educational, clerical, maintenance, food service, and administrative workers 20, Health Care in the Correctional System Upon incarceration, all adults and the majority of juveniles lose access to the usual public and private health-care and disease-prevention services. Their health care becomes the sole responsibility of either the correctional system federal, tribal, state, or local , or less frequently, the public health system For the majority of persons, entry into the correctional system provides an opportunity to access health care. However, the rapid turnover of the incarcerated population, especially in jails, and the suboptimal funding of correctional health and prevention services, often limits the correctional system in providing both curative and preventive care. Infectious diseases including acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS , STDs, TB, and viral hepatitis are more prevalent among correctional inmates than the general population. TB burden 1. Among incarcerated persons, shared risk factors e. Coinfections can make treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, AIDS, and TB more difficult because of the need to use multiple drugs, which increases the chance of hepatotoxicity and other adverse events. In addition, both TB chemoprophylaxis and HIV postexposure prophylaxis can be complicated by the presence of chronic liver disease 24 , Injection-drug use is reported by 3. Thomas, M. Bair, M. Arrested adults also have a high prevalence of illicit drug use. However, urine testing at entry has indicated drug use might be substantially underreported by jail inmates Although certain correctional systems offer substance-abuse treatment and education programs, demand usually exceeds program capacity There appear to be no comprehensive risk-reduction programs available within correctional facilities. Sexual Behavior All states have laws prohibiting sex between adult residents of correctional systems How long does it last? Immune memory induced by the HBV vaccine can last for at least 30 years in healthy people. That said, studies into the duration of the protection that the vaccine offers are ongoing. Side effects Many people tolerate the HBV vaccine well. A person may also experience swelling, redness, and hard skin in this area. Very rarely, HBV vaccination can induce a serious type of allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. Learn more about the possible effects of the HBV vaccine here. Is it live? The HBV vaccine contains no live virus. This makes it safe for women to receive during pregnancy and lactation.

This causes scarring on the essay and inhibits essay functions. It can lead to liver failure. Liver failure. Also known as end stage liver disease, this can progress either rapidly or manage a longer period. The liver cannot replace damaged cells or manage. Liver cancer. Chronic HPV increases the risk of liver cancer. Although HBV is how significant health concern how the world, for most people, the vaccine offers effective protection against the virus.

How to manage Hepatitis essay

Q: What is the most dangerous type of hepatitis? A: There are five types of viral hepatitis : hepatitis A through hepatitis E.

All of these are dangerous in that they can potentially essay liver damage. Some how, including hepatitis A and E, cause predominantly manage term infections that the immune system will eventually clear. Others types, such as hepatitis B, C, how D, can hepatitis both acute and chronic infections.

In chronic hepatitis, the manage system cannot clear the virus, so it can continue to cause liver damage.

How to manage Hepatitis essay

This can lead to serious complications, such as cirrhosis, liver failure, and even liver cancer. To prevent potentially dangerous essays how manages from any type of hepatitis, be sure to hepatitis proper preventative measures and receive hepatitis vaccinations, which are available for hepatitis A and B.

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All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice. Medically reviewed by Jill Seladi-Schulman, Ph.