This powerful shove has been connected with far-reaching cost for economic well-being, political processes and social structures in countries across the world. Many multinational corporations manufacture products in different nations and selling internationally to different nations. With the constant flow of goods and service help the integration of economies and societies.
Thought through, this type of reasoning calls for what Walden Bello has called de-globalization, putting up or reinstalling artificial barriers to the economic flows of goods, services, and capital, while reversing the neoliberal agenda by localizing or nationalizing production and regulating business. In practice, complete isolationism or full-fledged protectionism is rarely advocated. Despite its popular label, the movement contains more alterglobalizing than antiglobalizing opinions, especially because in a number of issues, such as migration, it generally favors open over closed borders.
In the alter option, the general aim is to bring globalization back under democratic control. By and large two options to do so are often discussed. The first option believes that globalization can only be steered in the right direction by global, or at least international, multilateral organizations. With equal and fair participation of all countries in these organizations, globalization could be reshaped by implementing global labor and environmental standards.
This way global business would be embedded in a more ethical framework of sustainable development. The Tobin Tax A more specific measure that is advocated in this context is the Tobin Tax, a small tax on all international trade in currency. The initiative is named after the Nobel Prize—winning economist James Tobin, who in suggested such a tax in order to discourage short-term speculation in currencies.
This should have a stabilizing effect on the exchange rates by releasing them from the pressures of shortterm expectations. Meanwhile the tax would be low enough between 1 percent and 0. The crisis was seen as the proof of the destabilizing effects that free capital markets and speculation can bring along. The movement extended the ethical agenda of the Tobin Tax by suggesting that the money that the tax produced could be collected by a global or international organization and be put to use for international development.
Of course this was not an end in itself as the tax would actually produce a small amount of money if it had its desired discouraging effect. This option does not work because the building blocks of all these organizations are states and because it depends on the willingness and ability of the different governments to implement the necessary laws that would adjust globalization.
Commerce and financial services are just far more developed and deeply entrenched now than they were at that time because of the availability of modern electronic communication. Moreover, commerce and trade among countries have been simplified with the establishment in of the World Trade Organization, a powerful international body composed of countries, mandated to mediate trade disputes among member nations.
The old GATT evolved through several rounds of negotiation until it was renamed into the present WTO with expanded powers and responsibilities that now cover trade in services and traded inventions, creations, and designs — collectively known as intellectual property. They take credit for the improvement of Third World economies, including that of India, in recent years.
Unfortunately not everyone is happy with globalization, particularly developing countries. Some view the WTO with distrust and have rejected it altogether. Others with suspicion and misgiving, but joined it nevertheless as a necessary evil. They feel globalization is the handiwork of multinational companies out to dictate their terms to the hapless Third World.
In general, those who oppose globalization as institutionalized by the WTO, World Bank, and other similar institutions, believe that it undermines the sovereign will of poor and developing countries in favor of multinational corporations from developed countries. James Tobin 's winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics proposal for a tax on financial transactions called, after him, the Tobin tax has become part of the agenda of the movement.
Also, George Soros , Joseph E. Stiglitz another Economic Sciences Nobel prize winner, formerly of the World Bank, author of Globalization and Its Discontents and David Korten have made arguments for drastically improving transparency , for debt relief , land reform , and restructuring corporate accountability systems. Korten and Stiglitz's contribution to the movement include involvement in direct actions and street protest.
In some Roman Catholic countries such as Italy there have been religious influences, especially from missionaries who have spent a long time in the Third World the most famous being Alex Zanotelli. Internet sources and free-information websites, such as Indymedia , are a means of diffusion of the movement's ideas. The vast array of material on spiritual movements, anarchism , libertarian socialism and the Green Movement that is now available on the Internet has been perhaps more influential than any printed book.
Anti-globalization protests in Edinburgh during the start of the 31st G8 summit. Although over the past years more emphasis has been given to the construction of grassroots alternatives to capitalist globalization, the movement's largest and most visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience.
This mode of organizing, sometimes under the banner of the Peoples' Global Action network, tries to tie the many disparate causes together into one global struggle. In many ways the process of organizing matters overall can be more important to activists than the avowed goals or achievements of any component of the movement. At corporate summits, the stated goal of most demonstrations is to stop the proceedings.
Although the demonstrations rarely succeed in more than delaying or inconveniencing the actual summits, this motivates the mobilizations and gives them a visible, short-term purpose. This form of publicity is expensive in police time and the public purse. Since then, activist focus has shifted toward world and regional social forums, as tens of thousands have converged at mass gatherings in cities such as Porto Alegre, Mumbai, Quito, Florence, Paris, and London to discuss alternatives to corporate globalization.
New Information and Communication Technologies The anti-globalization movement is characterized by the innovative use of new information and communication technologies ICTs to organize actions, share information and resources, and plan and coordinate activities.
Although activists primarily employ e-mail and electronic listservs, during mobilizations they also create temporary Web sites that provide contact lists, information, and resources; post calls to action and other documents; and house discussion forums and real-time chat rooms. Particular networks also have their own Web pages, where activists can post reflections, analyses, updates, links, and logistical information.
Interactive Web sites offering multiple tools for coordination are increasingly popular, including open publishing projects such as Indymedia, which allow users to freely post news and information without editorial selection and control. Anti-globalization networks are locally rooted, yet globally connected. In contrast to traditional parties and unions, networked movements are spaces of convergence involving a multiplicity of organizations, collectives, and networks, each retaining its own identity and autonomy.
Such grassroots forms of political participation are widely seen as an alternative mode of democratic practice.
If you need a custom essay or research paper on this topic please use our writing services. New York: Simon and Schuster. The dispute shows that the antiglobalization movement had some strong critiques to offer and for some time it was able to capture the public eye. Antiglobalists do not accept this excuse and at the same time they remind politicians that the process itself can be altered or reversed. The next important steps for the movement were taken in The movement was very much carried from below and grew on the internet, where Web sites such as Indymedia provided the necessary platform for discussion and informed the public about the critiques against globalization.
The movement was called the Carnival Against Capitalism, or J18 for short. The protest movement debunks First World perception that it has the answers to problems being encountered by their Third World neighbors over issues of trade, health, food supply, poverty, environment, etc.
Over protesters were arrested and thousands were injured. Globalization is not entirely a new concept. Assessment Given the heterogenic composition of the antiglobalization movement and its refusal to draft a general program, it is not only hard to define the movement and its message but also to evaluate its success. In some Roman Catholic countries such as Italy there have been religious influences, especially from missionaries who have spent a long time in the Third World the most famous being Alex Zanotelli. Other groups, influenced by the Third Position , are also classifiable as anti-globalization.