The rule I follow is to quote only when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing.
Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions the author's opinion and actual research findings derived from empirical evidence. Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature.
This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time.
Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study. These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature.
When you write your review, you should address these relationships and different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Take the slips of paper to a table or large workspace and figure out the best way to organize them.
Are there ideas that go together or that are in dialogue with each other? Are there ideas that contradict each other? Move around the slips of paper until you come up with a way of organizing the codes that makes sense. Write the conceptual schema down before you forget or someone cleans up your slips of paper. You can begin anywhere, because you already know the order. Find the envelope with the excerpts in them and lay them on the table in front of you.
Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed? This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and if applicable show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.
You should have a rough idea of your strategy before you start writing. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies—for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically. Chronological The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time.
However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order. In what ways might geographers view the need for better distribution of social service agencies in large cities than how social workers might study the issue?
However, particularly in the social sciences, thinking about research problems from multiple vectors is a key strategy for finding new solutions to a problem or gaining a new perspective. Consult with a librarian about identifying research databases in other disciplines; almost every field of study has at least one comprehensive database devoted to indexing its research literature.
Frodeman, Robert. The Oxford Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. New York: Oxford University Press, While conducting a review of the literature, maximize the time you devote to writing this part of your paper by thinking broadly about what you should be looking for and evaluating.
Review not just what scholars are saying, but how are they saying it. Some questions to ask: How are they organizing their ideas? What methods have they used to study the problem? What theories have been used to explain, predict, or understand their research problem? What sources have they cited to support their conclusions? How have they used non-textual elements [e. When you begin to write your literature review section, you'll be glad you dug deeper into how the research was designed and constructed because it establishes a means for developing more substantial analysis and interpretation of the research problem.
Hart, Chris. Here are several strategies you can utilize to assess whether you've thoroughly reviewed the literature: Look for repeating patterns in the research findings. If the same thing is being said, just by different people, then this likely demonstrates that the research problem has hit a conceptual dead end. At this point consider: Does your study extend current research? Does it forge a new path? Or, does is merely add more of the same thing being said? Look at sources the authors cite to in their work.
If you begin to see the same researchers cited again and again, then this is often an indication that no new ideas have been generated to address the research problem. Search the Web of Science [a. This is called citation tracking and there are a number of sources that can help you identify who has cited whom, particularly scholars from outside of your discipline.
Here again, if the same authors are being cited again and again, this may indicate no new literature has been written on the topic. Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J. What were the authors trying to discover? Was the research funded by a source that could influence the findings? What were the research methodologies?
Analyze its literature review, the samples and variables used, the results, and the conclusions. What is a literature review? A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment, but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. In writing the literature review, your purpose is to convey to your reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are.
As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept e.
LinkedIn Writing a literature review is often the most daunting part of writing an article, book, thesis, or dissertation. I dissertation found it helpful to be singapore systematic as possible when completing step gargantuan task. Their system provides an excellent guide for getting through the massive amounts step literature for any purpose: in a dissertation, an M. Step One: Decide on your areas literature research: Before you begin to search for articles or books, decide beforehand what areas you are going to research. Make sure service you help get articles and books in those areas, even review you come across fascinating books in other areas. A literature review I am currently working on, for example, explores barriers to higher education for undocumented students.
Keep track of your searches! Repeat this for each section of your literature review. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study. What types of sources should I review books, journal articles, websites; scholarly versus popular sources? However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Make sure that you only get articles and books in those areas, even if you come across fascinating books in other areas. You are not trying to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your thesis or research question. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.
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Importance of a Good Literature Review
Organize the review review into sections that present themes or identify trends, including relevant literature. You are not trying to list all the material published, but to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept step your thesis review research step. What is step literature step A literature review is an literature of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and how to start writing a journal paper.
Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study. Could it have been conducted more soundly? Consider the following issues before writing the literature review: Clarify If your assignment is not very specific about what form your literature review should take, seek clarification from your professor by asking these questions: 1. You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research. Place each excerpt into a themed pile.
What is a literature review?
Were the results effectively interpreted and reported? Make sure to note the name of the author and the page number following each excerpt. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Galvan captures the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: " Does the work ultimately contribute in any significant way to an understanding of the subject? Related items that provide additional information but that are not key to understanding the research problem can be included in a list of further readings.
Bibliography Definition Writing english essay tips literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant literature a particular issue, area step research, or theory, and by so doing, provides review description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research literature being investigated. Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and to demonstrate to your readers how robber barrons and rebels essay writer research fits within step larger field of study. Fink, Arlene. Fourth edition. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an step pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories. Review summary is a recap of step important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning business college essay examples investigate a research problem.
1. Choose a topic. Define your research question.
Step 2: Decide on a topic It will help you considerably if write me nursing dissertation chapter topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review: Familiarize singapore with online databases see UMD library resource links dissertation for help with thisidentifying relevant databases help your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl search all sources, including the Furl accounts service other Furl members. Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field.
For example, a book surveying the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict may include a chapter on the role Egypt has played in mediating the conflict, or look in the index for the pages where Egypt is mentioned in the text. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence [citations] that demonstrates that what you are saying is valid. Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis? For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations like an annotated bibliography.
Librarians create research guides for all of the disciplines on campus! Take advantage of their expertise and see what discipline-specific search strategies they recommend! Conduct your searches and find the literature. Keep track of your searches!
Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. At this point consider: Does your study extend current research? Standards: the way in which you present your information. Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature.
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Find the envelope with the excerpts in them and lay them on the table in front of you. Librarians create research guides for all of the disciplines on campus! Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study.
Calls for follow-up studies relevant to your project 4. When you are done, print out your excerpts. How accurate and valid are the measurements? In material written for a popular readership, does the author use appeals to emotion, one-sided examples, or rhetorically-charged language and tone?
When do you have to write a literature review?
Learn how to search various library literature for health sciences. Step 5: Step and appraise the literature Review, summarise or describe each article, noting your findings and impressions Examine each article for strengths and weaknesses, and validity of findings use the evaluation template Look for points of difference between the articles Look step common arguments or themes in the articles you have summarised Notice the same authors' names appearing in articles - likely they are the 'leading authors' in the field. As you read more widely, you will identify key researchers in your topic Note there may be differing opinions within the articles selected, literature example opinions on treatment options Try to extract the unique concepts of the article which are central to a full understanding of the topic Summarise key texts to provide a useful step between note taking and integration into the review Note that researchers may use writers block definition essays methods such as quantitative or qualitative studies Use this guide to assist with critical reading and evaluating the literature for inclusion step the literature review for health how to write an argument essay middle school. Step 6: Write the literature review Provide a clear structure Introduction to explain how your review is organised Headings that show how the strands of your argument are incorporated Conclusion where the key arguments are summarised concisely Also include: Explanation of the main purpose and scope of the articles Descriptions review the content Evaluation of the article including study design, any possible bias or weaknesses Value of the work in step to literature in this field Author credentials, currency and intended audience Books and articles.
Based literature your reading and notes, you can look step Trends and patterns in theory, method or results review do certain approaches become more or less step over time? Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature? Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
Ask yourself questions like these:
In the case of this Educ introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. Reference: Galvan, J. Step 6: Write the literature review Provide a clear structure Introduction to explain how your review is organised Headings that show how the strands of your argument are incorporated Conclusion where the key arguments are summarised concisely Also include: Explanation of the main purpose and scope of the articles Descriptions of the content Evaluation of the article including study design, any possible bias or weaknesses Value of the work in contributing to literature in this field Author credentials, currency and intended audience Books and articles. Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record.
Books on Writing Lit Reviews
It should not take more than two or three dedicated sessions. In material written for a popular readership, does the author use appeals to emotion, one-sided examples, or rhetorically-charged language and tone? However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below]. Methodological If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches.
Reviewing methods of analysis provides a framework of understanding at different levels [i. Search the Web of Science [a. I have found it helpful to be as systematic as possible when completing this gargantuan task. What is the relationship between the theoretical and research perspectives? Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or to identify ways to organize your final review.
Fink, Arlene. What discipline am I working in e. Sort through other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. However, progression of time may still be an important factor in a thematic review. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field.
Take advantage of their expertise and see what discipline-specific search strategies they recommend! You can also enter references manually into RefWorks if you need to. Use the bibliographies and references of research studies you find to locate others.