Law enforcement agencies may be held civilly accountable for their actions in domestic violence incidents. Mandatory arrest policies have been initiated helping reduce discretionary power of police officers.
Courts have also begun to focus on the offenders of domestic violence. Currently, there are batterer intervention programs and mediation programs available for offenders within certain jurisdictions. Also, in association with an increase in activity in the academic, medical, social, and political communities, legislation has been enacted for the purposes of domestic violence protection, prevention, and education.
Policies such as the Violence against Women Act help to empower women through the funding of prevention and intervention programs. Despite the fact that social change has been credited with spurring protective legislation and social awareness concerning intimate partner violence, many claim that there has been a limited social understanding of the experiences of women in violent relationships, and there remains a victim-blaming bias in how we have responded to domestic violence as a society.
As an aside, it is thoroughly acknowledged that women are not the only victims of domestic violence, because this is a social problem that victimizes men as well. However, research shows that the vast majority of reported domestic abuse victims in U. Additionally, the injuries suffered by women tend to be more severe than those suffered by men. Therefore, we will focus on domestic violence as it affects women primarily. Abuse Behaviors Behaviors associated with intimate partner violence are usually categorized into the following groups: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and financial abuse.
Although all are harmful, when there are limited resources in a community, leaders must choose where to direct these resources to do the most good. The most visible category is physical abuse, which has received the most attention from research and advocacy groups. This does not, however, imply that it is the most harmful or important abuse behavior. The following definitions of abusive behaviors have been taken from the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and will be described here in greater detail.
Physical Abuse Physical abuse is defined as the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, disability, injury, or harm.
Consequences associated with physical abuse are severe and far reaching, resulting in death in extreme cases. This can include, but is not limited to, humiliating the victim, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, threatening or terrorizing, and denying access to basic resources.
Scholars have reported that as many as 80 to 90 percent of women will experience psychological maltreatment at some point in an intimate relationship Neufeld, McNamara, and Ertl The consequences of such abuse have been found to have devastating impacts on survivors as well.
In fact, due to the devastating consequences of emotional abuse, many survivors report that they would rather be physically hit than emotionally abused by an intimate partner.
Sexual Abuse The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, a subgroup of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, defines and divides sexual abuse into three categories: 1 the use of physical force to compel a person to engage in a sexual act against his or her will, regardless of whether the act is completed; 2 an attempted or completed sex act involving a person who is unable to understand the nature or condition of the act, to decline participation, or to communicate unwillingness to engage in the sexual act e.
Studies show that between 10 and 14 percent of wives have been forced into sexual activity by their partners Strong, DeVault, and Cohen It is often difficult for women who are sexually abused by an intimate partner to seek help, because it is often the case that sexual activity within relationships, whether voluntary or coerced, is not recognized as abusive.
Funding for programs that address domestic violence against women. When evaluators do recognize domestic violence, research indicates that.
Criminal justice response to domestic assault cases: A guide for policy development. Domestic violence. Children living in homes where domestic violence happens are exposed to the. Research and. Domestic violence essay pdf. Of women with disabilities, Paper presented to: Domestic Violence.
The introduction. This section links to the abstract and gives additional information about the topic you are going to discuss in the body paragraphs. Highlight how the issue is important and why the reader should pay attention to it. Also, you need to write a thesis statement. The literature review. In this section you can highlight the most interesting findings from the recent publications and researches. Share statistics and other materials related to the topic. Mention research gaps in the literature and point out moments that need further investigation.
The methodology. Here you need to discuss the methods that you have used to investigate the chosen issue. Share your findings on the topic. For example, if you have conducted a survey, you will need to discuss the data you have received as a result. You can illustrate the major data in tables or diagrams, as people frequently perceive visual data better. Also, describe the received data.
Sum up the information that you have disclosed in all parts. Demonstrate how your findings are significant, and highlight the key findings from your research. If possible, show new or improved ways of thinking about the issue. Please note: Your outline may take another form, especially when you have not conducted the field study. For example, instead of the methodology and results sections, you can discuss several sides of the issue.
These topics can be viewed from various points: social, psychological, historical, economic, and more. This problem can influence all people of all races and ethnicities. Explore the topics you have discussed in the class. Also, it will be a good idea to look through the paragraphs in your textbooks. Unfortunately, victims who have been through the cycle before want to believe the promises that are being made, but instead feel depressed, helpless, hopeless, and trapped.
While the batterer may feel somewhat in control again, he is still fearful that the victim may leave or obtain the involvement of the criminal justice system. Although apologies are made, batterers tend to minimize the abuse they inflicted on the victim.
In sum, the honeymoon stage eventually cycles back to the tension-building phase, since the cycle of violence is a continual repetitious pattern.
Psychopathology One explanation behind domestic abuse is that the perpetrator suffers from certain mental disorders that lead him to seek psychological gratification through dysfunctional relationships. Detractors of this theory point out that most domestic abusers manage to function normally in other relationships, not necessarily behaving aggressively toward others in their daily life. While some abusers probably do suffer from mental illness or exhibit some signs of personality disorders, it is difficult to claim psychopathology as the main cause of domestic violence.
Perceived Gender Roles A more widely accepted theory from the feminist school of thought, gender role theory is a perspective that sees institutionalized patriarchy as an explanation for domestic violence.
As such, an abuser who expects his partner to fill a traditionally subservient feminine gender role may resort to power and control behaviors to assert his power in the relationship. While this explanation rings true for many couples in abusive relationships, it fails to explain the occurrence of domestic violence within lesbian and gay relationships.
There are specific reasons for domestic violence between same-sex couples, which will be discussed later in this research paper. However, one may argue that gender role theory can apply to homosexual relationships as well, in that the abuser may be trying to achieve a perceived societal gender norm within the relationship. It is difficult to pinpoint one distinct explanation for the epidemic of domestic violence; every relationship is unique, and abusers exhibit violent behaviors for a variety of reasons.
Ultimately, it is most likely a combination of social, psychological, cultural, and individual factors that lead abusers to control their victims through domestic violence. Domestic Violence and the GLBT Community While the majority of research on domestic violence refers to heterosexual couples, studies focusing on intimate partner abuse within gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered GLBT relationships show that it happens at the same rates Renzetti, Since their inception, domestic violence shelters have become more inclusive in welcoming and assisting gay women.
Nonetheless, as stated by the New York Anti-Violence Project, Services are fraught with potentials for re-victimization that pivots on homophobia, transphobia and heterosexism. To this end, the deleterious effects of homophobia and heterosexism cannot be discounted in the lives of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT survivors of IPV [interpersonal violence].
Stereotypical beliefs about gender roles and expectations may lead others to think that women are not capable of battering and that men cannot be labeled as victims. As with heterosexual couples, abuse in GLBT relationships is not always physical, does not only occur between couples who cohabitate, and it happens between young dating partners as well as adults.
Legislation in regard to abuse within GLBT relationships is limited. According to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence , 30 states and the District of Columbia have domestic violence laws that are gender neutral and include dating partners as well as those living together. Conversely, three states Delaware, Montana, and South Carolina have language that explicitly excludes same-sex partners from legal protection in cases of abuse. Domestic Violence: Myth Versus Fact One of the major efforts of the domestic violence movement, from the beginning, has been to debunk commonly believed stereotypes and myths about domestic violence.
This is important because an accurate awareness of the issue cannot occur within society if the general public believes that domestic violence is a problem that only affects certain groups of people and is therefore not in need of attention since it is not that common.
In addition, one of the easiest ways to acquire an overall understanding of the basic elements of domestic violence is to debunk commonly believed stereotypes. For example, it is commonly believed that domestic violence only affects certain populations. As mentioned above, domestic violence occurs across all cultures, religions, ethnicities, income levels, sexual orientations, age groups, and education levels.
Another myth is that domestic violence is not a common or serious problem when in fact, in the United States, a woman is battered every 9 seconds NCVC, Another myth is that domestic violence is caused by substance abuse. In fact, many batterers abuse alcohol or drugs, but it is not an excuse for their violence, as not all abusers are alcoholics or addicts and not all alcoholics or addicts abuse their partners. While some substance abusers blame their addiction for their battering behavior, they mistakenly assume that if the substance abuse stops, so will the abuse.
It is best to think of substance abuse as being correlated with the incidence of domestic violence. Many believe that if a victim really wants to stop the abuse, she could easily just walk out.
The third stage of the cycle of violence is when the violent outbursts stop. The abuser becomes apologetic and will usually ask for forgiveness, as well as assure the victim that it will never happen again.
This phase usually results in the victim forgiving the abuser, in which case the cycle usually begins again. The victim is often afraid to leave the abuser due to them feeling dependant on the abuser. There are many theories about the psychological causes of domestic violence, from alcohol abuse, drug abuse, stress, poor anger management, and an abusive childhood. However, social conditions can and do encourage violence against women.
Abusers usually have the following personality characteristics, either they were abused as children, they feel insecure, have poor verbal communication, have low self esteem, need to dominate, have a lack of assertiveness, or they have dependency needs. If there are no negative consequences such as jail time and filing charges, then the message is that violence is acceptable.
Abusers have learned to be abusive by watching others in the family and society. Abusers have also found that it is an effective way of establishing or regaining control in the household. Society must help to stop domestic violence. The government must ensure the safety and protection of assaulted women and their children. The community should support and help women who want to leave abusive relationships.
Money should be put into shelters and counseling to better help with the victims of domestic violence. However, the real problem lies with how society raises its children. Society should rethink its attitude towards women and teach children what is acceptable and what is not when it comes to behavior.
One major cause of domestic violence is stress. Many women who exit abusive relationships are stalked by their abuser. Demonstrate how your findings are significant, and highlight the key findings from your research. Mandatory arrest laws were created to protect and help victims of domestic violence. White guilt shelby steele essay Topics for a Criminology Research Paper. Other services include those sponsored by the National Coalition against Domestic Violence.
Order Domestic Violence Research Paper Domestic violence is a large social issue in the United States today, as well as all over the world. The following section of this research paper discusses the types and prevalence of domestic violence.
When communities can establish policies to arrest abusers, a message is sent from the police to the society that domestic violence is a crime that will and should not be taken lightly. Generally thought of as taboo, the public belittles and humorizes domestic abuse as a way to deal with it, that avoidance must come to an end. These women stand a very high death rate than any other leading cause of death for women of all ages. Thus, it is no surprise that until the late s, a wife was not able to file a protection order against her husband unless she also filed for divorce.