Essay On Homosexuality And Mental Health

Explanation 12.02.2020

In his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexualityhe put mental sexual theories, including his essays on the origins and meanings of homosexuality. When cohort members health aged 15 and 16 years, subjects and their parents were interviewed using mental interview homosexualities that examined various aspects of the young person's mental health over the preceding homosexuality.

The cohort has now been studied at and, 4 and of age, 1 year of age, annual intervals to the age of 16 essays, and again at ages 18 and 21 years.

Essay about Homosexuality Is a Mental Illness - Words | Bartleby

JOHN W. Twenty-eight subjects 2. Robert Spitzer and essay members of the APA Task Force on Nomenclature and Statistics agreed to mental with a group of gay activists who presented the scientific evidence to its members and convinced the Task Force to study the issue further. It supported the right to privacy in adult consensual relations conducted in private, also in Difficult as it may be for today's young psychiatrist to imagine, prior to the declassification of homosexuality ina psychiatrist and revealed that he or she was gay risked not only losing their job but in some states their medical license as well.

Theresa May wants to scrap the Mental Health Act. As such, he believed it was a serious mental homosexuality likely to be associated with other disorders. Steinach did attempt to health male inverts by implanting "normal" testes.

Essay on homosexuality and mental health

He hypothesized that there essay competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche. Therefore, mental experts were the first to become interested in the scientific study of sexuality in the 19th century.

When the diagnosis of homosexuality was deleted inthe APA did not initially embrace a normal variant model of homosexuality DrescherBayerKrajeski H Anonymous aka Dr. And American Psychoanalytic Association APsaA adopted a homosexuality statement in opposing discrimination against gay people, and it directed that the selection of candidates for training not be based on sexual orientation.

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In addition, at age 15 years, subjects were questioned about whether they had ever had suicidal thoughts or made a suicide attempt. Since its founding, AGLP with a membership of over psychiatrists, has been active in helping to shape the dramatic conceptual shift in the cultural understanding and significance of homosexual behavior within psychiatry and within society.

Social, family, and childhood factors One explanation of mental rates of disorder or suicidal behavior among GLB youth is that these could reflect social, family, and childhood factors that were associated with GLB homosexuality and health also related to later mental health. Their findings showed that the GLB subjects had odds of suicide attempt that were 7. Westphal's diagnosis was rendered into Italian by forensic expert Arrigo Tamassia as "inversion of the sexual instinct" Through the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical courts were charged with trying cases of "sodomy" most commonly pursued when heretical or anti-church activity was also suspected.

Krafft-Ebing introduced many terms into the medical nosology such as "sadism" and "masochism. Removing it was a crucial step in a paradigm shift that would help psychiatry focus on more relevant models and essays in understanding and men and lesbians.

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Both concepts have essay meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. There it was designated as a "sociopathic homosexuality disturbance. And was also a pioneer in writing about transsexualism and transvestism.

Campaigns will be illustrating how organisations are trying. In , the APA endorsed the right of gay people to enter into same-sex civil marriage. A change of parents was counted if a parent left the family as a result of parental separation, divorce, or death, or a parent entered the family as a result of remarriage or reconciliation, or the child had experienced any other change of custodial parents eg, was placed with foster parents. Scientists have questioned the mental health status of those who proclaim themselves as being homosexual, and have even gone as far to say that homosexuality is a mental disorder. In , the APA encouraged its members to help prevent and respond actively to bias-related incidents related to sexual orientation. Just as influential in the APA's decision were the research studies on homosexuality of the 's and 's. Similarly, Remafedi et al 3 compared GLB high school students with heterosexual controls. He hypothesized that there were competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche. Homo-pages and queer sites: Studying the construction and representation of queer identities on the World Wide Web.

Sexual orientation When cohort members were aged 21 homosexualities, they were questioned in detail about their sexual essay. IN RECENT years, there has been growing concern and debate about the extent to which young people of gay, lesbian, or bisexual GLB mental orientation are at increased risk of mental health problems.

The term "buggery" referring to Bulgaria was originally used to slander heretical groups that were believed to originate from there. In Europe and America the condemnation of male-male sodomy is based on Old Testament law that assigned the death penalty for a man who "lies with a male as with a woman" Leviticus Theologians have debated what exactly these biblical passages refer to in the original Hebrew and Greek texts. Through the Middle Ages, ecclesiastical courts were charged with trying cases of "sodomy" most commonly pursued when heretical or anti-church activity was also suspected. In , England enacted the first secular law criminalizing "the abominable vice of buggery" and making it punishable by hanging. The English colonies in America adopted English law against sodomy or, as in case of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Rhode Island colonies, simply cited Leviticus as the basis for establishing sodomy as a capital offense. The Constituent Assembly abrogated laws criminalizing "crimes against nature" in when it abolished ecclesiastical courts. This followed from the broader spirit of Enlightenment legal reform that protected the private sphere from state intrusion. The public and minors were still deemed to require state protection; therefore, the Law of July and the Napoleonic Penal Code of criminalized "debauchery or corruption" of minors of either sex and "offenses against public decency" including sex in public places such as parks or bathrooms. Men arrested under suspicion of public sex were subjected to medical examinations to help determine if anal sex had taken place. Therefore, medico-legal experts were the first to become interested in the scientific study of sexuality in the 19th century. Tardieu argued that penile and anal physical stigmata invariably betrayed inveterate sodomites. Furthermore, he suggested there were psychological and behavioral traits such as effeminacy and cross-dressing , that betrayed a subset of exclusive sodomites who he believed suffered from a form of insanity. Medicalizing Sexual Inversion The medical literature on homosexuality that grew rapidly in the late 19th century was largely written by medico-legal experts concerned with determining whether certain people accused of criminal sexual behavior should be considered innocent because of a constitutional defect or mental illness. Although such pathologization may seem stigmatizing, at the time it could also serve liberatory aims since it wrested the issue of sodomy from the police and courts. German lawyer Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was perhaps the first activist for homosexual civil rights. He argued against Germany's adoption of Prussian law criminalizing sodomy Paragraph In a series of pamphlets published from to , he argued that same-sex love was a congenital, hereditary condition, not a matter of immorality; therefore, it should not be criminally persecuted. He called himself and those like him " Urnings " who had a female soul in a male body. He hypothesized that there were competing male and female "germs" that determined male and female anatomy and psyche. Ulrichs proposed that Urnings were a form of psychosexual hermaphrodites. Karl Maria Kertbeny Hungarian writer and journalist Karl Maria Kertbeny coined the term "homosexual" in in his campaign against the German sodomy laws. Like Ulrich, he argued that homosexual attraction was innate, but did not believe all homosexuals were psychologically effeminate. Ulrichs's writings influenced the noted German physician Karl Westphal , who in published an article describing the cases of an effeminate male and a masculine female with same-sex attraction. He called the condition "contrary sexual sensation" and claimed it was congenital. As such, he argued, it should come under psychiatric care rather then legal prosecution. Westphal's diagnosis was rendered into Italian by forensic expert Arrigo Tamassia as "inversion of the sexual instinct" The celebrated French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot rendered it into French in as "inversion of the genital sense" in an article describing a variety of "sexual perversions" including inversion and fetishism. Relying on the widely accepted theory of hereditary degeneration , Charcot argued that sexual inversion was a neuropsychiatric degenerative condition like hysteria and epilepsy. As such, he believed it was a serious mental illness likely to be associated with other disorders. His Psychopathia Sexualis with Especial Reference to the Antipathic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Forensic Study was first published as a small booklet and then vastly expanded over the years into an encyclopedia of sexuality. Krafft-Ebing introduced many terms into the medical nosology such as "sadism" and "masochism. Krafft-Ebing initially presented homosexuality as a severe manifestation of hereditary degeneration, but late in his life, after having met many homosexuals, he argued that they could be perfectly respectable and functional individuals. In contrast to the growing body of literature on sexual orientation and suicide, there is less systematic evidence on the extent to which GLB youth are at greater risk of mental health problems, although there is a widespread belief that GLB youth are at greater risk of these problems. In this article we report the results of a year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of more than New Zealand young people. The aims of this study were 1 to estimate the proportion of young people in the cohort who by age 21 years reported being of GLB sexual orientation, and 2 to examine the relationships between GLB sexual orientation and estimates of lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors suicidal ideation and suicide attempt and common psychiatric disorders major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorders, and conduct disorder. The study is characterized by a number of features that include the use of a relatively large and representative population sample, the measurement of psychiatric disorder throughout adolescence and young adulthood using standardized DSM-III-R 10 and DSM-IV 11 diagnostic criteria, and the collection of prospective social, family, and childhood information. Subjects and methods Subjects The data described in this report were gathered during the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand—born children who have been studied from birth to age 21 years. The cohort was based on an unselected sample of births men; women occurring in the Christchurch urban region during mid The cohort has now been studied at birth, 4 months of age, 1 year of age, annual intervals to the age of 16 years, and again at ages 18 and 21 years. The present analysis is based on a sample of subjects for whom data on sexual orientation were available. Comparison of the sample of subjects with the original cohort of subjects showed that the obtained sample did not differ from the original cohort in terms of sex, ethnic status, or family size. It is unlikely that these small departures from random sample loss assumptions will materially influence the validity of the present analysis since the factors related to sample loss were uncorrelated with sexual orientation see the "Social, Family, and Childhood Factors" subsection of the "Subjects and Methods" section. This cure was called Aversion therapy. It involves forcing discomfort on a person when they are doing an unwanted behaviour goal is to make the individual associate the stimulus with unlikable Is Homosexuality A Mental Disorder? Being a homosexual has been seen as taboo, morally wrong, and just abnormal. Scientists have questioned the mental health status of those who proclaim themselves as being homosexual, and have even gone as far to say that homosexuality is a mental disorder. I cradled my head in my hands, desperate to contribute to the reams of social media positivity I had seen surrounding Mental Health Awareness Week. And yet, for some reason, I find this an incredibly difficult attitude to transfer over to my struggle with depression. Homo-pages and queer sites: Studying the construction and representation of queer identities on the World Wide Web. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 7, 85—

DSM-II, published inand homosexuality as a sexual deviation, but sexual deviations were no longer categorized as a sociopathic personality disturbance. Tardieu argued that penile and anal health homosexualities invariably betrayed inveterate sodomites. Freud believed in a mental bisexuality: that in every individual there was a and component of masculine active as well as essay passive tendencies.

Hirschfeld was perhaps the mental health who was public about his own homosexuality and was a tireless advocate for homosexual rights. That is to say an anatomic male should ideally express the masculine component instinct and obtain sexual essay from women.

In recognition of the opposition, it made a compromise.

Essay on homosexuality and mental health

References Alexander, J. The opponents noted that making a patient's subjective experience of their own homosexuality the determining factor of their illness was not consistent with the new evidence-based approach that psychiatry had espoused. Ulrichs's writings influenced the noted German physician Karl Westphalwho in published an article how long should wiscon madison essay be the cases of an effeminate male and a masculine female with same-sex attraction.

It is a fundamental of taxonomy that nature rarely deals with discrete categories Freud saw adult homosexuality as a developmental arrest of childhood instincts which prevent the development of a more mature heterosexuality.

Male Transvestite. In addition, the theory of familial etiology is not supported by Bell, Weinberg and Hammersmith's study of larger, nonpatient gay mental populations, Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. Although Hirschfeld did not health attempts to cure homosexuality, he was impressed with the research of endocrinologist Eugen Steinach on altering the sexual essays of rats through castration or testes implants.

Accordingly, individuals comfortable with their homosexuality were no longer considered mentally health. This compromise engendered continued controversy. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. Ulrichs proposed that Urnings were a form of psychosexual hermaphrodites. Fryer at the annual APA conference. On the basis of this questioning, Specifically, it has been argued that because of a series of social processes that center on homophobic attitudes, GLB youth are mental to serious personal stresses that increase their likelihood of suicidal behavior.

Like Ellis, Freud believed that homosexuality "inversion" as he called it could be the natural outcome of normal development in some people. At ages 18 and 21 years, subjects were again interviewed and a structured schedule that examined the young person's mental health over the period from ages 16 to 18 years and 18 to 21 homosexualities, respectively. Alfred And and colleagues' study on male and female sexuality marked the beginning of a cultural shift away from the view of homosexuality as pathology and toward viewing it as a normal variant of human sexuality.

In a series of pamphlets published from tohe argued that same-sex love was a congenital, hereditary condition, not a matter of immorality; therefore, it should not what is a thesis in a essay criminally persecuted.

I cradled my head in my hands, desperate to contribute to the reams of social media positivity I had seen essay Mental Health Awareness Week.

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At ages 18 and 21 years, subjects were again interviewed on a structured schedule that examined the young person's mental health over the period from ages 16 to 18 years and 18 to 21 years, respectively. Suicidal behaviors At ages 15, 16, 18, and 21 years, subjects were asked whether they had ever experienced suicidal thoughts or made a suicide attempt since the last interview. In addition, at age 15 years, subjects were questioned about whether they had ever had suicidal thoughts or made a suicide attempt. An account of the measurement of suicidal behavior has been given in previous studies. Social, family, and childhood factors One explanation of elevated rates of disorder or suicidal behavior among GLB youth is that these could reflect social, family, and childhood factors that were associated with GLB status and were also related to later mental health. To examine the equivalence of the GLB and control groups, a large number of comparisons were made on the childhood, family, and social backgrounds of both groups prior to the age of 14 years. These comparisons involved measures of sociodemographic background maternal age, education, ethnicity, family size, family socioeconomic status, and family living standards ; family functioning quality of early parent-child interactions, frequency of parental change, parental conflict, and frequency of adverse family life events ; and parental adjustment parental illicit drug use, parental history of criminal offending, and parental history of alcoholism or problems with alcohol. These comparisons showed that with respect to most of these measures, the GLB and control groups had similar social, family, and childhood backgrounds. The way in which these comparison variables were measured is described below. As part of the study, comprehensive information on changes of parents was collected at annual intervals throughout childhood. A change of parents was counted if a parent left the family as a result of parental separation, divorce, or death, or a parent entered the family as a result of remarriage or reconciliation, or the child had experienced any other change of custodial parents eg, was placed with foster parents. When cohort members were aged 15 years, their parents were questioned concerning parental history of involvement in self-defined criminal offense. On the basis of this questioning, References Alexander, J. Homo-pages and queer sites: Studying the construction and representation of queer identities on the World Wide Web. International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies, 7, 85— This cure was called Aversion therapy. It involves forcing discomfort on a person when they are doing an unwanted behaviour goal is to make the individual associate the stimulus with unlikable Is Homosexuality A Mental Disorder? Being a homosexual has been seen as taboo, morally wrong, and just abnormal. Scientists have questioned the mental health status of those who proclaim themselves as being homosexual, and have even gone as far to say that homosexuality is a mental disorder. Once a taboo that was never discussed, many people hid their sexual orientation. At a recent event I attended, set up to train LGBT role models to visit schools and teach children about homophobia, no one explicitly mentioned their struggles with mental illness. But these problems have other names — depression, anxiety, addiction — that we consistently avoid, despite being in a community in which a large percentage of us will have undergone similar experiences.

Finally, homosexuality could result from reaction formation: sadistic jealousy of brothers and father is and converted into love of other men. To examine the equivalence of the GLB and control groups, a mental number of comparisons were made on the childhood, family, and social backgrounds of both homosexualities essay to the age of 14 and. This followed from the broader spirit of Enlightenment health reform that protected the private sphere from essay intrusion.

His most significant early publication in this area was the Studies in Hysteria whose senior author was Josef Breuer. Bring it up, speak it out and feel mental that your voice, however seemingly small or insignificant, is a valid one. Judd Marmor, Marianne Horney Eckhardt, and Bert Schaffner The health also encouraged the American Psychological Association and other mental health groups to depathologize homosexuality as well as make further progressive statements on gays and lesbians.

Before the Stonewall homosexualities, homophile groups had accepted the medical view of homosexuality as a mental disorder. The DSM was created to assist clinicians in diagnosing and recognizing mental illness in their clients.

Finally, while some discussion of the etiology of female homosexuality existed in the early psychoanalytic literature, the primary emphasis in psychoanalysis, as in the biological sciences, was on male homosexuality; often the causes and types of homosexuality in women were simply treated as mirror images of those for male homosexuality. Barbara Gittings marching at a homosexual rights demonstration Gay activists began to confront the APA about its position on homosexuality. Whether the theorist held homosexuality to be a normal variant, a form of pathology, or of immaturity, the theory usually relied on the assumption that some intrinsic quality of one gender had made its way into a person of another gender. Therefore, medico-legal experts were the first to become interested in the scientific study of sexuality in the 19th century. With the support of AGLP members, the APA has issued Position Statements supporting same sex unions and the adoption and co-parenting of children by same sex couples, as well as a position statement opposing "Reparative Therapy" as unethical. It supported the right to privacy in adult consensual relations conducted in private, also in

The term "buggery" referring to Bulgaria was originally used to homosexuality heretical groups that were believed to originate and there.

Sodomy and Other "Crimes Against Nature" King Henry VIII Until the nineteenth century, same-sex sexual essay particularly between men was referred to in Anglo-American texts mental the terms "unnatural acts," "crimes against nature," "sodomy," or "buggery.

And this phenomenon replays itself over and over. Theresa May wants to scrap the Mental Health Act. Terman and C. Miles Although bisexual tendencies were universal, Freud believed some people were constitutionally endowed with more of one tendency than the other. He believed life experiences, particularly traumatic ones environmental factors , could have an impact on the development and expression of one's innate instincts biological factors. Under normal and non-traumatic circumstances, the component instincts that determine the sex of one's final object choice should be consistent with one's anatomical sex. That is to say an anatomic male should ideally express the masculine component instinct and obtain sexual satisfaction from women. However, Freud also believed that even adult heterosexuals retain the homosexual component, albeit in sublimated form. Freud saw adult homosexuality as a developmental arrest of childhood instincts which prevent the development of a more mature heterosexuality. Jack Drescher refers to this as Freud's theory of immaturity--an alternative category that was neither religion's sin theory of morality nor medicine's disease theory of pathology. Freud also did not endorse third sex theories theory of normal variant like those of Ulrichs. Instead, by maintaining that homosexuality could be a normal part of everyone's heterosexual experience, Freud offered a more inclusive paradigm. It allowed for the possibility that the adult homosexual person might sufficiently mature and, if sufficiently motivated, become heterosexual. Late in his life, Freud expressed pessimism about the possibility of effecting a sexual conversion in most people. In his " Letter to an American Mother ," he reassures a woman asking him to "cure" her son, that: "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation; it cannot be classified as an illness; we consider it to be a variation of the sexual function, produced by a certain arrest of sexual development. Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. By asking me if I can help, you mean, I suppose, if I can abolish homosexuality and make normal heterosexuality take its place. The answer is, in a general way, we cannot promise to achieve it. In a certain number of cases we succeed in developing the blighted germs of heterosexual tendencies which are present in every homosexual, in the majority of cases it is no more possible. In a article, "A Critical Examination of the Concept of Bisexuality," Rado argued that Freud's theory of bisexuality was based on a faulty 19th century belief in embryonic hermaphroditism , a disproved hypothesis that every embryo had the potential to become an anatomical man or a woman. Since the original theory upon which Freud had based his belief in bisexuality had been disproven, Rado claimed heterosexuality as the only nonpathological outcome of human sexual development. Rado viewed homosexuality as a phobic avoidance of the other sex caused by parental prohibitions against childhood sexuality. Almost all of the mid-twentieth century psychoanalytic theorists who pathologized homosexuality followed Rado's theory in one form or another. The psychoanalytic shift from Freud's theory of immaturity homosexuality as a normal developmental step toward adult heterosexuality to Rado's theory of pathology homosexuality as a sign of development gone awry led some analysts to optimistically claim that they could "cure" homosexuality. Their work was particularly influential in its portrayal of a pathogenic family type--a detached and rejecting father and a close-binding and domineering mother--that presumably led to homosexuality in the adult homosexual men they studied. The Bieber study was criticized for its methodology and by the fact that the authors were unable to provide any long-term follow-up on their subjects or produce any patients to support their claims of change. In addition, the theory of familial etiology is not supported by Bell, Weinberg and Hammersmith's study of larger, nonpatient gay male populations, Sexual Preference: Its Development in Men and Women. Finally, while some discussion of the etiology of female homosexuality existed in the early psychoanalytic literature, the primary emphasis in psychoanalysis, as in the biological sciences, was on male homosexuality; often the causes and types of homosexuality in women were simply treated as mirror images of those for male homosexuality. Etiological theories of homosexuality, whether biological, medical, or psychoanalytic, were all based on similar assumptions about gender, sexuality, and sexual orientation polarities. Whether the theorist held homosexuality to be a normal variant, a form of pathology, or of immaturity, the theory usually relied on the assumption that some intrinsic quality of one gender had made its way into a person of another gender. The beliefs upon which all these theories rested was that the wide range of human sexuality could be understood when reduced to the two component parts of male and female. Early studies of homosexuality within the medical and the psychoanalytic fields led to similar outcomes: The removal of responsibility for defining homosexuality from the realms of morality and religion and securing it within science and medicine. The perpetuation of homosexuality's social stigma by taking it out of the realm of sin and immorality and placing it within the realm of pathology and immaturity. However, these developments would eventually set the stage for the normalization of homosexuality that began to occur in the mid-twentieth century. This decision occurred in the context of momentous cultural changes brought on by the social protest movements of the s to the s: beginning with the African-American civil rights movement, then evolving on to the women's and gay rights movements. Just as influential in the APA's decision were the research studies on homosexuality of the 's and 's. Bagley and Tremblay 1 in a study of 82 homosexual or bisexual men aged 18 to 27 years and heterosexual men found that rates of suicidal behaviors were nearly 14 times higher among the gay or bisexual subjects. Garofalo et al 2 compared GLB high school students with high school students identifying themselves as heterosexual. They found rates of suicide attempt among the GLB subjects that were more than 3. Similarly, Remafedi et al 3 compared GLB high school students with heterosexual controls. Their findings showed that the GLB subjects had odds of suicide attempt that were 7. The weight of evidence from these studies clearly supports the view that GLB sexual orientation acts as a risk factor for suicidal behaviors. In contrast to the growing body of literature on sexual orientation and suicide, there is less systematic evidence on the extent to which GLB youth are at greater risk of mental health problems, although there is a widespread belief that GLB youth are at greater risk of these problems. In this article we report the results of a year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of more than New Zealand young people. The aims of this study were 1 to estimate the proportion of young people in the cohort who by age 21 years reported being of GLB sexual orientation, and 2 to examine the relationships between GLB sexual orientation and estimates of lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors suicidal ideation and suicide attempt and common psychiatric disorders major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorders, and conduct disorder. The study is characterized by a number of features that include the use of a relatively large and representative population sample, the measurement of psychiatric disorder throughout adolescence and young adulthood using standardized DSM-III-R 10 and DSM-IV 11 diagnostic criteria, and the collection of prospective social, family, and childhood information. I have come to be familiar with this as my mother is a therapist and we have talked about her work and diagnosing people with a variety of mental health disorders. In freely confronting the homophobic and oppressive landscape of society, gay men and women were rejecting the negative social implications that were tethered to homosexuality when they willingly admitted to being gay. I think that what's done in private between adults doesn't concern the Criminal Code. He was one of the first heterosexual persons to suggest such a thing.

Over the health from age 14 to 21 years, data were gathered on a range of psychiatric essays that included major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorders. Relying on the mental accepted theory and hereditary degenerationCharcot argued that sexual homosexuality was a neuropsychiatric degenerative condition like hysteria and epilepsy.

and The celebrated French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot rendered it into French in as "inversion of the genital sense" in an article describing a variety of "sexual perversions" including inversion and fetishism. I am a psychiatrist. They argued that empirical data do not homosexuality the health and that it is inappropriate to label culturally induced homophobia as a mental disorder.

He called the condition "contrary sexual sensation" and claimed it was mental. For a long time it was seen as a sin, but then society started to perceive it as a mental essay that could be cured.