Before you start writing your proposal, you need to have a clear picture of who your proposal is aimed at. You should realize who these people are and what may appeal to them. Moreover, it will be entirely right to assume that the people reading your proposal are busy people, so the proposal has to be very brief and concentrated, and you have to remove all the unnecessary bits of information.
You should ponder about what your reader already knows about the topic, and avoid mentioning that in your proposal. The only information that should be in your proposal is the new information. To sum it up, here is a checklist of questions that you have to answer about your proposal: Who is going to read it?
How familiar are they with the problem already? What information they want to hear about it and what information you can omit in your proposal? What do they want to hear? What do you want these people to learn from your text?
How do you motivate them to make the necessary decision upon reading your proposal? Step 2. Clarify the issue In a perfect case scenario, the issue that you are proposing to solve is evident to you. You know the drawbacks of the current state of events and why it needs to be improved. But is it just as clear to your audience?
And — more importantly — do they believe that you are the one who can take care of it? So, you should realize that your task is not only to convey the situation to your audience. You need to convince them that you possess sufficient expertise and authority to deal with the issue properly. This has to do with the classical persuasion methods suggested by Aristotle in his time: pathos, logos, and ethos. When putting together a proposal, writers often concentrate on logos — the one that appeals to rational thinking and operates facts and logic.
While it is quite important, it must not overshadow the other effective persuasion methods: pathos — the one that appeals to emotion, and, of course, ethos — the one that is meant at establishing you as someone who possesses just the sufficient authority on the subject. In case of a proposal, you should employ ethos to convince the reader that you understand the issue better than anybody, so you should be the one to deal with it.
You are welcome to learn more about these persuasion technique — ethos, pathos, and logos — from handbooks and guides in rhetoric.
This is essential for coming up with a firm proposal. Step 3. Suggest a solution Once again, always keep in mind that your reader is a busy person who will not give your proposal a thorough and thoughtful reading at a relaxed pace. They will most likely just look through it, and if there will be nothing to grasp their attention, they will discard it and forget about it.
This is why, you should not go round about, but instead get straight to the point. On the one hand, the solution that you are suggesting should be brief and easy to follow, but on the other hand, you should provide as much detail as necessary, - so that your reader was left without questions. Among the details of your solution that you must provide in your proposal, one of the key aspects is the timeline. All the stages of implementation need to be clearly outlined, so that you could convince the most skeptical audience that you have an insight into the problem which you are able and willing to solve.
Take into account that the people who read your proposal might browse through its content in a hurry and might not be inclined to give your thoughts too much attention. Effectiveness and eloquence are of the essence! Think about the identity of your readers and their degree of experience with your subject. Ponder on which aspects you might be required to explain or provide additional data about.
Consider what you hope your readers to understand from your proposal and what you must provide them with, so you can influence them to make a favorable decision. Think about what they hope to hear and how you can adequately communicate it to them.
What must you do for them to acknowledge the essence of your proposal? The paper writer must not be the only person who understands the problem. To back up your ethos, or identity, you must always support your statements. To do so, you must utilize proof and clarifications.
By addressing the problem adequately, you can persuade the audience that you have what it takes to attend to it. When organizing this phase, you should ask yourself the following questions: To which particular case is the topic relevant? What are the specific motives?
Am I positive that these are in fact the actual motives? How can I be so certain? Have other researchers worked on this particular topic before? Were they successful? If so, why? Did they fail? Avoid writing a summary that is evident to anyone in the profession. This phase ought to be clear and easy to comprehend.
Your answer should be brief and achievable. Keep in mind that you must abide by the entirety of the guidelines included in the RFP request for proposal file. If you have enough time, go over and beyond the minimum level. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring.
Proposal This is a statement of purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in this section. Plan of Action How will you go about achieving your proposal?
What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. Will it work? Focus this area on why the proposal will work. Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this "past experience" option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity.
Think logically here. Desired outcomes Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really "drill" home the point. Necessary Resources Another simple part. Your proposal should include the following elements: 1. A claim that proposes specific action, whether a change of practice or policy, to resolve a problem or need, and is suitable for your audience.
Evidence and reasons that show clearly the problem and its significance, clearly relate the proposal claim to the problem or need, and show that the proposal will work and resolve the problem or need. A consideration of possible rebuttals to your proposal. Suggestions for Finding a Topic Consider practical problems at Kean University; your high school; your city or town; your place of work; your hobbies, etc.
If you were to choose a problem or situation at Kean, for example, you might consider proposals like the following: A proposal to improve the quality of advising for students in your major.
A proposal to improve the ESL program A proposal to improve the international student exchange program. A proposal to improve safety conditions in a particular building or facility. A proposal to change a rule at your dormitory. Audience Proposals are generally addressed to someone who can do something with them, and they are accompanied by a cover letter that introduces the proposal to that specific person or persons.
For example, if you were writing a policy proposal based on a social issue, you might name your senator or representative as the individual capable of taking action, but it must be the correct senator or representative for your voting district. If you feel that the senator or representative might not listen, then you might address your proposal to a specific group or organization that the senator or representative might listen to.
Consider what you hope your readers to understand from your proposal and what you must provide them with, so you can influence them to make a favorable decision. Step
Need help with essay? If your solution is unviable, call it off! But use as few words as possible to make this a knockout punch. Essay examples how to write a research proposal good english the importance of best sample paper document template ideas. If the costs are high, appeal to the values of the audience by showing that your proposal will lead to actions that lead to consequences that your audience values.
Consider what you hope your readers to understand from your proposal and what you must provide them with, so you can influence them to make a favorable decision.
This has to do with the classical persuasion methods suggested by Aristotle in his time: pathos, logos, and ethos. Here is a template of a comprehensive proposal outline: Introduction Give the relevant background information on the problem. Plan of Action The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Body Paragraph Three — Third Opposing Argument Again, this should be the same as above, although many people use it as a means of expressing an opposing opinion to the one they hold.
The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available Skills for Successful Completion As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage. You should realize who these people are and what may appeal to them. A collage is simply a group of objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. By acknowledging them, you highlight your awareness and authority on the subject-matter.
This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. The term of deliverables is used to refer to the commodities or facilities you will offer. Stick to the proper style We mentioned on more than one occasion that you should keep visualizing the people who will be reading your proposal. Conclusion Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the "history" of a certain proposal. There will be a plan of action.