Periods and commas go inside quotation marks; semicolons and colons go outside. If your quotation is more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, you set it apart from the flow of the text by indenting it ten spaces on the left and continue double spacing. Note: when indenting a quote, you do not need quotation marks around the blocked quotation.
Use "double quotation marks" within the blocked quotation for direct speech or a title. Here's an example from Adrienne Rich's "Sources. Punctuation comes after the citation. Example: "Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes, , ? An effective conclusion might answer the question "So what? Or it might echo the introduction, underscoring the larger significance of your thesis now that we understand its complexity.
Most important: If you know all this, great. If it seems overwhelming, don't despair. So which one is right? The answer is: Probably all of them. How you handle book titles in your work is a style choice not governed by grammarian law. The issue is addressed by the top stylebooks, but the answers vary. Nevertheless, even this tactic does little to counter how strongly citation rules have enhanced the attention first-named authors receive. Common methods for listing authors The following are some common methods for establishing author order lists.
Relative contribution. As mentioned above, the most common way authors are listed is by relative contribution. The author who most substantially worked on the draft article and the underlying research becomes the first author. The others are ranked in descending order of contribution. However, in many disciplines, such as the life sciences, the last author in a group is the principle investigator—the person who supervised the work.
Alphabetical list. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al.
When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Year, e. See Full Citation.
In most cases, it's best to state your main idea - your thesis - in the first or second paragraph, so that your reader knows right away what it is that you're going to argue.
How you handle book titles in your work is a style choice not governed by grammarian law. What's the author's view? Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources:. So which one is right? Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad