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Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi

  • 05.04.2019

Neither seems to have made any initially strong impression on the other. Gandhi makes no mention of Nehru in an autobiography he dictated while imprisoned in the early s. That period saw an early wave of nationalist activity and governmental repression, which culminated in the Massacre of Amritsar in April ; according to an official report, persons were killed though other estimates were considerably higher , and at least 1, were wounded when the local British military commander ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of unarmed Indians assembled in an almost completely enclosed space in the city.

When, late in , the prominent leaders and workers of the Congress Party were outlawed in some provinces, Nehru went to prison for the first time. Over the next 24 years he was to serve another eight periods of detention, the last and longest ending in June , after an imprisonment of almost three years.

In all, Nehru spent more than nine years in jail. Characteristically, he described his terms of incarceration as normal interludes in a life of abnormal political activity. His political apprenticeship with the Congress Party lasted from to In he became general secretary of the party for two years, and he did so again in for another two years.

His interests and duties took him on journeys over wide areas of India, particularly in his native United Provinces now Uttar Pradesh state , where his first exposure to the overwhelming poverty and degradation of the peasantry had a profound influence on his basic ideas for solving those vital problems. The watershed in his political and economic thinking was his tour of Europe and the Soviet Union during — His subsequent sojourns in prison enabled him to study Marxism in more depth.

Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions. Gandhi also correctly calculated that, with added responsibility, Nehru himself would be inclined to keep to the middle way. Although Gandhi did not officially designate Nehru his political heir until , the Indian populace as early as the mids saw in Nehru the natural successor to Gandhi.

Ultimately, it provided for a federal system composed of the autonomous provinces and princely states. Although federation never came into being, provincial autonomy was implemented. During the mids Nehru was much concerned with developments in Europe, which seemed to be drifting toward another world war.

He was in Europe early in , visiting his ailing wife, shortly before she died in a sanitarium in Lausanne , Switzerland. When the elections following the introduction of provincial autonomy brought the Congress Party to power in a majority of the provinces, Nehru was faced with a dilemma.

The subsequent clash between the Congress and the Muslim League hardened into a conflict between Hindus and Muslims that was ultimately to lead to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. Initially, Gandhi believed that whatever support was given to the British should be given unconditionally and that it should be of a nonviolent character.

Nehru held that nonviolence had no place in defense against aggression and that India should support Great Britain in a war against Nazism but only as a free country.

If it could not help, it should not hinder. In October , Gandhi, abandoning his original stand, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one. After spending a little more than a year in jail, he was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii.

When the Japanese carried their attack through Burma now Myanmar to the borders of India in the spring of , the British government, faced by that new military threat, decided to make some overtures to India. Prime Minister Winston Churchill dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps , a member of the British War Cabinet who was politically close to Nehru and also knew Jinnah, with proposals for a settlement of the constitutional problem. The initiative in the Congress Party then passed to Gandhi, who called on the British to leave India; Nehru, though reluctant to embarrass the war effort, had no alternative but to join Gandhi.

Following the Quit India resolution passed by the Congress Party in Bombay now Mumbai on August 8, , the entire Congress working committee, including Gandhi and Nehru, was arrested and imprisoned.

Nehru emerged from that—his ninth and last detention—only on June 15, Within two years after his release, India was to be partitioned and free. The question was no longer whether India was to be independent but whether it was to consist of one or more independent states.

Hindu-Muslim antagonism, culminating in late in clashes that killed some 7, people, made the partition of the subcontinent inevitable. While Gandhi refused to accept it, Nehru reluctantly but realistically acquiesced. On August 15, , India and Pakistan emerged as two separate independent countries.

Achievements as prime minister In the 35 years from , when Gandhi chose Nehru as president of the Congress session at Lahore, until his death, as prime minister, in , Nehru remained—despite the debacle of the brief conflict with China in —the idol of his people. The real difference between Nehru and Gandhi was not in their attitudes toward religion but in their attitudes toward civilization.

Whereas Nehru talked in an increasingly modern idiom , Gandhi was harking back to the glories of ancient India. The importance of Nehru in the perspective of Indian history is that he imported and imparted modern values and ways of thinking, which he adapted to Indian conditions.

The Congress and various other Indian organisations threatened to launch protests if she were not set free. The British government was subsequently forced to release Besant and make significant concessions after a period of intense protest.

Non-cooperation The first big national involvement of Nehru came at the onset of the Non-Cooperation movement in He led the movement in the United Provinces now Uttar Pradesh. Nehru was arrested on charges of anti-governmental activities in , and was released a few months later.

He sought foreign allies for India and forged links with movements for independence and democracy all over the world.

In , his efforts paid off and the Congress was invited to attend the congress of oppressed nationalities in Brussels in Belgium. The meeting was called to co-ordinate and plan a common struggle against imperialism. Nehru represented India and was elected to the Executive Council of the League against Imperialism that was born at this meeting. In the face of these allegations, Nehru responded, "We have sympathy for the national movement of Arabs in Palestine because it is directed against British Imperialism.

Our sympathies cannot be weakened by the fact that the national movement coincides with Hitler's interests. He was in Europe in early , visiting his ailing wife, shortly before she died in a sanitarium in Switzerland. However, the two split in the late s, when Bose agreed to seek the help of fascists in driving the British out of India.

Krishna Menon visited Spain and declared support for the Republicans. He refused to meet Benito Mussolini , the dictator of Italy when the latter expressed his desire to meet him. He helped to make the struggle of the people in the princely states a part of the nationalist movement for independence. Nehru who had been supporting the cause of the people of the princely states for many years was made the President of the organization in The body would play an important role during the political integration of India, helping Indian leaders Vallabhbhai Patel and V.

Menon to whom Nehru had delegated the task of integrating the princely states into India negotiate with hundreds of princes. Menon were more conciliatory towards the princes, and as the men charged with integrating the states, were successful in the task.

Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , as prime minister, de-recognised all the rulers by a presidential order in , a decision struck down by the Supreme Court of India. Eventually, her government by the 26th amendment to the constitution was successful in derecognizing these former rulers and ending the privy purse paid to them in His resolution for independence was approved at the Madras session of Congress in despite Gandhi's criticism.

At that time he also formed Independence for India league, a pressure group within the Congress. Nehru was one of the leaders who objected to the time given to the British — he pressed Gandhi to demand immediate actions from the British. Gandhi brokered a further compromise by reducing the time given from two years to one. Demands for dominion status were rejected by the British in We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it.

The British government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or complete independence. The massive gathering of public attending the ceremony was asked if they agreed with it, and the vast majority of people were witnessed to raise their hands in approval.

The flag of India was hoisted publicly across India by Congress volunteers, nationalists and the public. Plans for a mass civil disobedience were also underway. Gandhi stepped back into a more spiritual role. Although Gandhi did not officially designate Nehru his political heir until , the country as early as the mids saw in Nehru the natural successor to Gandhi. After the protest gathered steam, they realised the power of salt as a symbol.

Nehru remarked about the unprecedented popular response, "it seemed as though a spring had been suddenly released". He had earlier, after addressing a huge meeting and leading a vast procession, ceremoniously manufactured some contraband salt.

He was charged with breach of the salt law, tried summarily behind prison walls and sentenced to six months of imprisonment. He nominated Gandhi to succeed him as Congress President during his absence in jail, but Gandhi declined, and Nehru then nominated his father as his successor.

Salt satyagraha success The salt satyagraha succeeded in drawing the attention of the world. Indian, British, and world opinion increasingly began to recognise the legitimacy of the claims by the Congress party for independence. Nehru considered the salt satyagraha the high-water mark of his association with Gandhi, [61] and felt that its lasting importance was in changing the attitudes of Indians: Of course these movements exercised tremendous pressure on the British Government and shook the government machinery.

But the real importance, to my mind, lay in the effect they had on our own people, and especially the village masses. Non-cooperation dragged them out of the mire and gave them self-respect and self-reliance. They acted courageously and did not submit so easily to unjust oppression; their outlook widened and they began to think a little in terms of India as a whole. It was a remarkable transformation and the Congress, under Gandhi's leadership, must have the credit for it.

Nehru,however, never joined the group but did act as bridge between them and Gandhi. Prasad as Congress President in Nehru was elected in his place and held the presidency for two years — After the fall of Bose from the mainstream of Indian politics because of his support of violence in driving the British out of India, [70] the power struggle between the socialists and conservatives balanced out. However, Sardar Patel died in , leaving Nehru as the sole remaining iconic national leader, and soon the situation became such that Nehru was able to implement many of his basic policies without hindrance.

Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , during the state of Emergency she imposed, was able to fulfill her father's dream by the 42nd amendment of the Indian constitution by which India officially became "socialist" and "secular". He firmly placed India on the side of democracy and freedom during a time when the world was under the threat of fascism. He appointed the National Planning Commission in to help in framing such policies.

His real interest in Marxism and his socialist pattern of thought stem from that tour. His subsequent sojourns in prison enabled him to study Marxism in more depth.

Interested in its ideas but repelled by some of its methods, he could never bring himself to accept Karl Marx's writings as revealed scripture. Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions. Since the Muslim League under Muhammad Ali Jinnah who was to become the creator of Pakistan had fared badly at the polls, Nehru declared that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British colonial authorities and the Congress.

Jinnah's statements that the Muslim League was the third and "equal partner" within Indian politics was widely rejected. Nehru had hoped to elevate Maulana Azad as the pre-eminent leader of Indian Muslims, but in this, he was undermined by Gandhi, who continued to treat Jinnah as the voice of Indian Muslims.

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Refugee resettlement, economic disruption and inadequate… Until narrative essay writing sample age of 16, Nehru was educated at home by a series narrative English motivational speaker business plan and tutors. Only one of those—a part-Irish, part-Belgian theosophist, Ferdinand Brooks—appears to have made any impression on life. Jawaharlal also had a essay Indian tutor who taught him Hindi and Sanskrit. In he went to Harrowa leading English school, where write stayed for two years. Hindi Harrow he went to Trinity College, Cambridgewhere he spent nehru years earning jawaharlal honours degree essay natural science.
Menon were more conciliatory towards the princes, and as the men charged with integrating the states, were successful in the task. Gandhi brokered a further compromise by reducing the time given from two years to one. When the elections following the introduction of provincial autonomy brought the Congress Party to power in a majority of the provinces, Nehru was faced with a dilemma. After much deliberation, the Congress under Nehru informed the government that it would co-operate with the British but on certain conditions. He helped to make the struggle of the people in the princely states a part of the nationalist movement for independence. In all, Nehru spent more than nine years in jail.
Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi
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Early years

Myla dalbesio essay writer life and career — Birth and family essay Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November in Allahabad in British India. His father, Motilal Nehru —a self-made wealthy barrister who hindi to the Kashmiri Pandit community, [5] served twice as President of the Indian National Congressin and His mother, Swaruprani Thussu —who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore[6] was Motilal's second wife, the first having died write child jawaharlal.
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He became involved with aggressive nationalists leaders who were demanding Home Rule for Indians. It stated that Dominion status for India was the objective of the British government. About the latter he wrote, "[The] Japanese victories [had] stirred up my enthusiasm
Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi
Early life and career — Birth and family background Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November in Allahabad in British India. After spending a little more than a year in jail, he was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. His resolution for independence was approved at the Madras session of Congress in despite Gandhi's criticism. The subsequent clash between the Congress and the Muslim League hardened into a conflict between Hindus and Muslims that was ultimately to lead to the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan.

Political apprenticeship

Interim Prime Minister and Independence —52 Nehru and his colleagues were released prior to the arrival of the British Cabinet Mission to India to propose plans for transfer of power. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them the people have a further right to alter it or abolish it. Both the British and the French had withdrawn peacefully. In October , Gandhi, abandoning his original stand, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one. Only one of those—a part-Irish, part-Belgian theosophist, Ferdinand Brooks—appears to have made any impression on him. Frank Moraes wrote: "If [Nehru's] sympathy was with any country it was with France, whose culture he greatly admired.
Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi
On August 15, , India and Pakistan emerged as two separate independent countries. A deadlock was reached. In October , Gandhi, abandoning his original stand, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one.

Although educated Indians "by and large took a vicarious pleasure" in seeing the British rulers humbled, the ruling upper classes sided with the Allies. In , his efforts paid off and the Congress was invited to attend the congress of oppressed nationalities in Brussels in Belgium. Earlier, Nehru and his father had been contemptuous of the run of contemporary Indian politicians, whose nationalism , with a few notable exceptions, consisted of interminable speeches and long-winded resolutions. Interested in its ideas but repelled by some of its methods, he could never bring himself to accept Karl Marx's writings as revealed scripture. The body would play an important role during the political integration of India, helping Indian leaders Vallabhbhai Patel and V.
Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi
His mother, Swaruprani Thussu — , who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore , [6] was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Nehru was arrested on charges of anti-governmental activities in , and was released a few months later. If it could not help, it should not hinder. Salt satyagraha success The salt satyagraha succeeded in drawing the attention of the world.

When the Japanese carried their attack through Burma now Myanmar to the borders of India in the spring of , the British government, faced by that new military threat, decided to make some overtures to India. While Gandhi refused to accept it, Nehru reluctantly but realistically acquiesced. In despair, Jinnah left the political scene for a stay in Kashmir. The real difference between Nehru and Gandhi was not in their attitudes toward religion but in their attitudes toward civilization. Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , during the state of Emergency she imposed, was able to fulfill her father's dream by the 42nd amendment of the Indian constitution by which India officially became "socialist" and "secular". Apart from his stress on secularism and on the basic unity of India, despite its ethnic and religious diversities , Nehru was deeply concerned with carrying India forward into the modern age of scientific discovery and technological development.
Write an essay on jawaharlal nehru in hindi
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The quality in Gandhi that impressed the two Nehrus was his insistence on action. Achievements as prime minister In the 35 years from , when Gandhi chose Nehru as president of the Congress session at Lahore, until his death, as prime minister, in , Nehru remained—despite the debacle of the brief conflict with China in —the idol of his people. In he went to Harrow , a leading English school, where he stayed for two years. Gandhi was 20 years his senior.
It stated that Dominion status for India was the objective of the British government. The four pillars of his domestic policies were democracy, socialism, unity, and secularism. The importance of Nehru in the perspective of Indian history is that he imported and imparted modern values and ways of thinking, which he adapted to Indian conditions. He refused to meet Benito Mussolini , the dictator of Italy when the latter expressed his desire to meet him. Non-cooperation The first big national involvement of Nehru came at the onset of the Non-Cooperation movement in The quality in Gandhi that impressed the two Nehrus was his insistence on action.
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Mogal

Hindu-Muslim antagonism, culminating in late in clashes that killed some 7, people, made the partition of the subcontinent inevitable. While Gandhi refused to accept it, Nehru reluctantly but realistically acquiesced. After spending a little more than a year in jail, he was released, along with other Congress prisoners, three days before the bombing of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. Before this crucial announcement, Nehru urged Jinnah and the Muslim League to join the protest but the latter declined. The question was no longer whether India was to be independent but whether it was to consist of one or more independent states.

Teshura

Wells , J. The Congress and various other Indian organisations threatened to launch protests if she were not set free. His father, Motilal Nehru — , a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, [5] served twice as President of the Indian National Congress , in and

Shaktizahn

His political apprenticeship with the Congress Party lasted from to His prestige was restored unwittingly by Gandhi, who had been released from prison on medical grounds in May and had met Jinnah in Bombay in September.

Goltijora

The most influential member of Congress had been seen to negotiate with him on equal terms. Yet from then on, the yardstick of his economic thinking remained Marxist, adjusted, where necessary, to Indian conditions. When India finally struck, Nehru could claim that neither he nor the government of India had ever been committed to nonviolence as a policy.

Malajind

The contending pulls and pressures that his experience abroad were to exert on his personality were never completely resolved. Gandhi also correctly calculated that, with added responsibility, Nehru himself would be inclined to keep to the middle way. In the United Nations , India was the only nonaligned country to vote with the Soviet Union on the invasion of Hungary , and it was thereafter difficult for Nehru to command credence in his calls for nonalignment. Interim Prime Minister and Independence —52 Nehru and his colleagues were released prior to the arrival of the British Cabinet Mission to India to propose plans for transfer of power. Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi , as prime minister, de-recognised all the rulers by a presidential order in , a decision struck down by the Supreme Court of India.

Goltigar

I should like India to play its full part and throw all her resources into the struggle for a new order. He wrote: "Visions of similar deeds in India came before, of [my] gallant fight for [Indian] freedom and in my mind India and Italy got strangely mixed together. Nehru remarked about the unprecedented popular response, "it seemed as though a spring had been suddenly released". When the Japanese carried their attack through Burma now Myanmar to the borders of India in the spring of , the British government, faced by that new military threat, decided to make some overtures to India. At that time he also formed Independence for India league, a pressure group within the Congress.

Nikolabar

When Singh chose India, however, fighting broke out between the two sides.

Meztikora

His mother, Swaruprani Thussu — , who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore , [6] was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Writings of Bernard Shaw , H.

Nizahn

But the real importance, to my mind, lay in the effect they had on our own people, and especially the village masses. His father had him educated at home by private governesses and tutors. Jinnah, however, had greatly strengthened his own position and that of the League. That demarcation became the line of control that still separates the Indian- and Pakistani-administered portions of the region. During the mids Nehru was much concerned with developments in Europe, which seemed to be drifting toward another world war.

Duzragore

Only one of those—a part-Irish, part-Belgian theosophist, Ferdinand Brooks—appears to have made any impression on him. Prime Minister Winston Churchill dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps , a member of the British War Cabinet who was politically close to Nehru and also knew Jinnah, with proposals for a settlement of the constitutional problem. Nehru considered the salt satyagraha the high-water mark of his association with Gandhi, [61] and felt that its lasting importance was in changing the attitudes of Indians: Of course these movements exercised tremendous pressure on the British Government and shook the government machinery.

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