Biology over time has sculpted our behaviour as human beings yet we are also a product of experience. Throughout each developmental stage, each developmental task presents a catastrophe for the individual. These four separate stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. During this paper, I will break down each stage into more depth and give a teaching tool for children in that age group and developmental stage to help them better understand the concept of time and explain why it would be helpful for the child.
Some students have a harder time developing the whole person, meaning that they have a harder time developing the physical, cognitive, and emotional-social parts of themselves all at the same time and pace. A student observation of a typical 2nd grade classroom was completed and one child stood out among the rest in his setting in both of their characteristics and stages of development Child development refers to the stages of physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and language growth that occurs from the birth to beginning of adulthood.
They learn to co-operate with other children, and later on, become more independent and form their own relationships with children based on their sense of mutual trust. They will continue to largely depend of those familiar faces surrounding them and at certain times, will only settle with specific people i.
Also, relationships through teachers and their friends will influence their self-esteem and confidence. This can go either way as they may feel comfortable and totally confident or have a sense of failure and inferiority amongst others i.
Their formal grammar will continue to improve and by this age, they can be expected to use language effectively. For example, children can count to 10 but are unaware of what 10 is exactly.
As they get older, their brains are able to think more logically and can understand simple logic problems. Adolescence: 10 — 18 years During the adolescence age range, both boys and girls will go through various changes known as puberty. During this phase, both males and females will experience physical, emotional and social changes.
Puberty in girls often begins between the ages of 11 and 13 however it may be earlier in some girls. Changes in the female body consist of widening of the hips, developing breasts, pubic hair, oilier skin, period will begin and a general curvy outline of their body. Boys tend to go through puberty at a later stage beginning around the age of 13 to 15 years of age. Changes within the males consist of growth of facial hair, breaking of their voice, growth of pubic hair, testes beginning to produce sperm, enlarging of the penis and increased muscle leading to increased strength.
Puberty is a development stage during which the body is beginning preparation for sexual reproduction and this development is triggered by hormones in the body that control sexual development. They will value the thoughts and opinions of their own network of friends in comparison to those of their parents and other family members. Adolescence is seen as a time of stress as they are coping with the development of their sexuality as well as the transition to fuller independence from the family.
Emotionally, adolescents are yet continuously developing their sense of self. They need to develop a secure sense of identity and have a clear understanding of this identity in order to feel secure when working alongside other people. Adolescents will also require this when forming relationships, both in general and sexual attachments. Adolescents will still require the emotional support from their parents and family although they may not show this as openly.
The transition from concrete thinking to formal logical operations occurs over time. Each adolescent progresses at varying rates in developing on their ability to think in more complex ways.
Each adolescent develops their own view of the world, some may be able to apply logical operations to school work long before they are able to apply them to personal dilemmas. In contrast if an infant does not receive enough or irregular care, or if caregivers are unresponsive, the infant can develop mistrust. The autonomy versus shame and doubt is the next stage, which occurs between the first and third years of life.
According to Erikson successful development through one stage is essential for an individual to pass on to the next stage of development. During the autonomy versus shame and doubt stage a child begins to develop its independence. Physical and cognitive growth and control during this stage afford a child the desire and ability to explore outside the comfort and security of his or her parental safe haven.
Parents who are overprotective and do not allow their children to explore their independence risk their child developing issues with their self-esteem and confidence. If not allowed to explore independent of the parental structure a child could begin to doubt her ability and feel shameful for not being able to accomplish expected tasks.
The initiative versus guilt stage occurs during early childhood. During this stage a child begins to develop social skills and learns to manage her behavior. Interaction with peers and individuals outside the family structure has a major influence on development during this stage.
The industry versus inferiority stage is the development period that occurs during adolescence. The identity versus role confusion is the stage of development in which adolescents explore self or role identity.
The adolescent begins to define who she is and what she wants to do in life. Some adolescents will have trouble establishing the level of self-understanding necessary for positive life direction. The intimacy versus isolation stage of development is the period of development where intimate relationships are formed; young adults develop meaningful friendship, fall in love, and establish relationship skills that will impact their ability to form future relationships.
Adolescents who fail to establish a sense of trust for their environment may have trouble in establishing intimate relationships. The generativity versus stagnation stage of development occurs during middle adulthood.
During this stage of development an adult begins to evaluate how her past and present behavior impact the lives of others, rather than focusing only on her personal wants and needs life. This stage is the time for reflection. An adult evaluates life choices and assess whether goals and dreams were fulfilled or whether life choice have left her with regrets. Psychodynamic theory centers on development relative to the unconscious mind.
Freud argues that development is complete by adolescence and that unconscious behavior affects development; where as Erikson suggests development is a continuous process throughout the lifespan and occurs in eight stages. Each theorist has contributed important information to the understanding of lifespan development. According to Berk , psychoanalytical theory provides a strong basis for understanding past behavior but does not do a very good job with predicting future behavior. Furthermore behavioral theorist suggests that nurture rather than nature is more significant to human development.
The behavioral perspective views development from a more personal perspective. Behaviorism rejects the psychoanalytical theory of studying the unconscious mind to understand human development Feldman, Behaviorism focuses on things that can be seen — social and cultural cues, human action and reaction and other observable aspects of the external environment.
Unlike psychoanalytical theorist who believed that development is discontinuous — occurring in distinct stages; behavioral theorists believe that development is a continuous process — gradual levels of achievement building on previous level Feldman, Skinner set the foundation for Behaviorism. Watson conducted similar research involving the principle of classical conditioning except he used human beings as his test subjects.
Watson conducted an experiment where he gave an infant a rat to assess he fear of the creature. Once it was determined that the infant was not afraid a loud noise was sounded each time the infant was allowed to play with the rat. The noise did frighten the infant. After this coupling of the rat and loud noise was accomplished a few times the infant began to develop a fear of not only the loud noise but also the rat. Skinner took a different approach to his research and set out to understand the principle of operant conditioning.
Operant conditioning suggest that certain behaviors are associated with certain consequences, for example, if a parent wants a child to behave the parent could give the child some type of reward that would induce good behavior.
Most are familiar with the later principle of operant conditioning; many aspects of human behavior are controlled by some type of reward and punishment system Santrock et al, Cognitive Perspective The cognitive perspective focuses on the development of human understanding. Cognitive theory is constructed around the conscious mind rather than the unconscious mind psychoanalytical theory. The four stages are the sensorimotor stage—use of the senses and movements in infancy to explore the world; preoperational stage — use of words and images, symbolic but illogical thinking of preschool aged children; concrete operational stage—organized logic and reasoning of school-aged children; and formal operational stage—complex, abstract reasoning system of the adolescent and adult Berk, , p.
The four stages involve a pattern or organization and adaptation. Piaget suggests that this process of organization and adaptation is continuous throughout the lifespan because the way human beings think is in constant evolution.
As we age our experiences grow, as does our brain. For example, a child perception of where babies come from will no doubt change over the course of his or her lifetime, yet if you ask a child where babies come from the child will try to associate what he or she understands about babies to answer your questions.
The common response usually has to do with two people loving each other; yet many find as they get older love has very little to do with where babies come from. The cognitive perspective contributed to lifespan development the concept that learning begins well before human beings can formulate words. Where an infant will use its body and immature sound to communicate its needs an adult will use reasoning and logic to get its way. Each period is characterized with specific physical and cognitive growth and developmental changes.
This part of the paper will define each period of development and examine theory and research relative to the period. Prenatal Development The importance of preconception health has been far overlooked. As the mother of three, when my spouse and I began to discuss the possibility of having a baby one of my first thoughts was whether I was healthy enough to conceive. I believe once an individual or couple make the decision to conceive the importance of his or her their preconception health is removed from the equation, even though preconception health has a major impact on prenatal development.
Proper health care prior to conception will improve the chances for successful prenatal development. The prenatal period sets the foundation for future development.
The prenatal period begins with conceptions and ends with birth. In the germinal period the sperm fertilizes the egg.
The union of the sperm and egg takes place in the fallopian tubes. During ovulation an egg is released from the ovary and enters the fallopian tubes. When they are 18 months old they are strong enough to show their emotions. At the age of two babies want everything their way and they have lots of temper tantrums. They are able to show a degree of empathy which is expressed through play.
At the age of three they are more sensitive and willing to share toys and take turns playing. Social Development Social development is like emotional development. Relationships with the peers become more important as the child gets older. Young children form friendship and tend to show preferences to particular people. When infants start nursery they have an opportunity to spend time with other infants. Language skills are also important in the development of relations, as children develop they can express their feelings in words.
There are other social developments like: Solitary play which normally occurs during infancy when the infants will play by themselves. Parallel play is when the children will play next to each other, but not together. Co-operative play is when children play together.
From infant to child: The dynamics of cognitive change in the second year of life. This would involve not being too self-centred or defensive and not becoming emotionally isolated. By 8 weeks, the embryo had grown between approximately 3 and 4cm, has a recognisable heartbeat and the beginnings of eyes, ears and a mouth. New York: Routledge. As the mother of three, when my spouse and I began to discuss the possibility of having a baby one of my first thoughts was whether I was healthy enough to conceive.
Childhood: 4 — 9 years Children will continue to grow during this period of their life however not as rapidly as during infancy. Emotional and biological changes and continued cognitive development also occur during middle childhood. Other physical signs of ageing would be the sagging of skin and appearance of wrinkles on certain regions of the face. Boys tend to build up more muscle whereas girls will have more fat. Stress is also an environmental factors.
According to different developmental theorists, children centre their development on separate aspects of development; cognitive, physical, social and behavioural. When they are born they have lots of physical reflexes. Freud believed there are three aspects to the human personality: the id, ego and superego.
The oral stage takes place during the first year of life.