Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website. If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead. Date The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.
If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day. DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link.
So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI. If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code. Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document. Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available , page range. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33 5 , Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.
When referencing a print article obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work.
By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required. If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc.
For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis.
For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages of the Publication Manual. A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 3 , However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Paterson, P. How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 1 , Hendricks, J. A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50 3 , Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. Accession No. Year, Month Day. Title of Newspaper. Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry.
The New York Times. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page.
Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. References Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. Robbins, personal communication, January 4,
Year, Month Day. For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect.