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How to write an outline for a scientific research paper

  • 06.04.2019

Background A. Historical Employment Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were frequently unionized and adequately compensated for their work cite sources. Historical Healthcare Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were often provided adequate healthcare and benefits cite sources.

Current Link between Education and Employment Type: Increasingly, uneducated workers work in unskilled or low-skilled jobs cite sources. Gaps in the Research: Little information exists exploring the health implications of the current conditions in low-skilled jobs. Minor Point 1: Unskilled work environments are correlated highly with worker injury cite sources. Minor Point 2: Unskilled work environments rarely provide healthcare or adequate injury recovery time cite sources.

Major Point 2: Conditions of employment affect workers' mental health A. Minor Point 1: Employment in a low-skilled position is highly correlated with dangerous levels of stress cite sources.

Minor Point 2: Stress is highly correlated with mental health issues cite sources. Minor Point 1: Mental health problems and physical health problems are highly correlated cite sources.

In the end, the purpose of this section is to allow other researchers to evaluate and repeat your work. So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1 : 1a. Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation. To isolate T cells, lymph nodes were collected.

As you can see, crucial pieces of information are missing: the speed of centrifuging your bacteria, the time, and the temperature in 1a ; the source of lymph nodes for collection in b. The sentences can be improved when information is added, as in 2a and 2b , respectfully: 2a. If your method has previously been published and is well-known, then you should provide only the literature reference, as in 3a.

If your method is unpublished, then you need to make sure you provide all essential details, as in 3b. Stem cells were isolated, according to Johnson [23]. Stem cells were isolated using biotinylated carbon nanotubes coated with anti-CD34 antibodies. Furthermore, cohesion and fluency are crucial in this section. One of the malpractices resulting in disrupted fluency is switching from passive voice to active and vice versa within the same paragraph, as shown in 4.

This switching misleads and distracts the reader. Behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 were programmed by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods. The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness [ 4 ].

The problem with 4 is that the reader has to switch from the point of view of the experiment passive voice to the point of view of the experimenter active voice. This switch causes confusion about the performer of the actions in the first and the third sentences.

We programmed behavioral computer-based experiments of Study 1 by using E-Prime. We took ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music.

We operationalized the preferred and unpreferred status of the music along a continuum of pleasantness. Ratings of enjoyment, mood, and arousal were taken as the patients listened to preferred pleasant music and unpreferred music by using Visual Analogue Scales SI Methods.

The preferred and unpreferred status of the music was operationalized along a continuum of pleasantness. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that the Materials and Methods section is the only section in research papers in which passive voice predominantly overrides the use of the active voice [ 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 ].

This means that while all other sections of the research paper use active voice, passive voice is still the most predominant in Materials and Methods sections.

Writing Materials and Methods sections is a meticulous and time consuming task requiring extreme accuracy and clarity. This is why when you complete your draft, you should ask for as much feedback from your colleagues as possible. Numerous readers of this section will help you identify the missing links and improve the technical style of this section. Rule 3: Be meticulous and accurate in describing the Materials and Methods.

Do not change the point of view within one paragraph. Writing Results Section For many authors, writing the Results section is more intimidating than writing the Materials and Methods section. If people are interested in your paper, they are interested in your results. That is why it is vital to use all your writing skills to objectively present your key findings in an orderly and logical sequence using illustrative materials and text.

Your Results should be organized into different segments or subsections where each one presents the purpose of the experiment, your experimental approach, data including text and visuals tables, figures, schematics, algorithms, and formulas , and data commentary. For most journals, your data commentary will include a meaningful summary of the data presented in the visuals and an explanation of the most significant findings.

This data presentation should not repeat the data in the visuals, but rather highlight the most important points. Another important aspect of this section is to create a comprehensive and supported argument or a well-researched case. This means that you should be selective in presenting data and choose only those experimental details that are essential for your reader to understand your findings. You might have conducted an experiment 20 times and collected numerous records, but this does not mean that you should present all those records in your paper.

You need to distinguish your results from your data and be able to discard excessive experimental details that could distract and confuse the reader. However, creating a picture or an argument should not be confused with data manipulation or falsification, which is a willful distortion of data and results.

If some of your findings contradict your ideas, you have to mention this and find a plausible explanation for the contradiction. In addition, your text should not include irrelevant and peripheral information, including overview sentences, as in 6. To show our results, we first introduce all components of experimental system and then describe the outcome of infections.

Indeed, wordiness convolutes your sentences and conceals your ideas from readers. One common source of wordiness is unnecessary intensifiers. Table 3 clearly shows that … 7b. It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i. We tested the hypothesis that there is a disruption of membrane asymmetry. In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs.

To improve your sentences, avoid unnecessary nominalizations and change passive verbs and constructions into active and direct sentences. We tested the hypothesis that the membrane asymmetry is disrupted.

In this paper we argue that stem cells repopulate injured organs. Your Results section is the heart of your paper, representing a year or more of your daily research. So lead your reader through your story by writing direct, concise, and clear sentences.

Rule 4: Be clear, concise, and objective in describing your Results. While describing your Methods and Results, many of you diverged from the original outline and re-focused your ideas. So before you move on to create your Introduction, re-read your Methods and Results sections and change your outline to match your research focus.

The updated outline will help you review the general picture of your paper, the topic, the main idea, and the purpose, which are all important for writing your introduction.

This is because it is the most important section of your article. Here you get the chance to sell your data. Take into account that a huge numbers of manuscripts are rejected because the Discussion is weak. You need to make the Discussion corresponding to the Results, but do not reiterate the results. Here you need to compare the published results by your colleagues with yours using some of the references included in the Introduction.

Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better. Take into account the following tips: 1. Avoid statements that go beyond what the results can support. Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant".

Avoid sudden introduction of new terms or ideas; you must present everything in the introduction, to be confronted with your results here. Speculations on possible interpretations are allowed, but these should be rooted in fact, rather than imagination. To achieve good interpretations think about: How do these results relate to the original question or objectives outlined in the Introduction section?

Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? Discuss weaknesses and discrepancies. If your results were unexpected, try to explain why Is there another way to interpret your results?

What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? Explain what is new without exaggerating 5. Revision of Results and Discussion is not just paper work. You may do further experiments, derivations, or simulations. Sometimes you cannot clarify your idea in words because some critical items have not been studied substantially. In some journals, it's a separate section; in others, it's the last paragraph of the Discussion section.

Whatever the case, without a clear conclusion section, reviewers and readers will find it difficult to judge your work and whether it merits publication in the journal.

A common error in this section is repeating the abstract, or just listing experimental results. Trivial statements of your results are unacceptable in this section. You should provide a clear scientific justification for your work in this section, and indicate uses and extensions if appropriate. Moreover, you can suggest future experiments and point out those that are underway. You can propose present global and specific conclusions, in relation to the objectives included in the introduction.

A good introduction should answer the following questions: What is the problem to be solved? Are there any existing solutions? Which is the best? What is its main limitation? One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.

How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on.

Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain? This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester.

This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did.

If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy".

If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.

Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. Checking the format is normally a large job for the editors. Another problem is that writers understate the significance of the Introduction. How did you answer this question?

Layout and Length

Science , If some of your findings contradict your ideas, you have to mention this and find a plausible explanation for the contradiction. When reading and listening to your paper, you are more likely to notice the places where the fluency is disrupted and where you stumble because of a very long and unclear sentence or a wrong connector. Present proper control experiments and statistics used, again to make the best professional resume writing services Columbus Ohio of investigation repeatable. Scientific the methods in the same order they will appear in the Results for, in research logical order in which you did the research: Description of the site Description of the surveys or experiments done, outline information on dates, etc. Description how the laboratory methods, including separation or treatment of write, analytical methods, following the order of waters, sediments and biomonitors.

Introduction

State the purpose of the paper and research strategy adopted to answer the question, but do not mix introduction with results, discussion and conclusion. It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i. The last time you updated your outline was before writing the Introduction and the Discussion. These may come in the form of statistics, examples from your sources, or supporting ideas.
Example 2 Original title: Action of antibiotics on bacteria Revised title: Inhibition of growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by streptomycin Comments: Titles should be specific. Additionally, if you are having trouble revising a paper, making an outline of each paragraph and its topic sentence after you have written your paper can be an effective way of identifying a paper's strengths and weaknesses. What is known about the topic? Never ignore work in disagreement with yours, in turn, you must confront it and convince the reader that you are correct or better. Avoid unspecific expressions such as "higher temperature", "at a lower rate", "highly significant". Hypothesis and objectives must be clearly remarked at the end of the introduction.

Example Outline

You may find opportunities to combine or eliminate potential paragraphs when outlining—first drafts often contain repetitive research or sections that stall, write than advance, the paper's paper argument. Additionally, if you are having trouble outline a paper, making an outline of each paragraph and its topic scientific after you have written how paper can be an effective way of identifying a paper's strengths and weaknesses. Example Outline The following outline for for a page paper discussing the link between educational attainment and health. Review the other sections of this how i am different from others essay writer for more detailed information about each component of this outline! Introduction A.
How to write an outline for a scientific research paper
What are your objectives? In addition, your text should not include irrelevant and peripheral information, including overview sentences, as in 6. Therefore, you should be explicit and clear in describing the benefit of the paper. In contrast to the macrostructure revision, which is a linear process and is done usually through a detailed outline and by sections, microstructure revision is a non-linear process. You may lose evidence to reinforce your conclusion.

Why Outline?

Format for the paper Edit your paper! A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical the paper menagerie essay writer. This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in which you did or thought about the work. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.
How to write an outline for a scientific research paper
Make their work easier and they will appreciate the effort. The easiest way to illustrate your tone is to use the active voice and the first person pronouns. Many new researchers mistakenly think that all their readers understand the importance of the research question and omit this part. Indicate the structure of the research paper.

Outlining Strategies

They are the label of your manuscript. Try to avoid this kind of response! Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places: Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al.
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Why is your research important? What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses? What are your objectives? Materials and Methods 1. What materials did you use?

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Temperature affects the reaction. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". A common error in this section is repeating the abstract, or just listing experimental results.

Sarr

It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i.

Arashikus

The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing; pp. Is there another way to interpret your results? Number these sub-sections for the convenience of internal cross-referencing, but always taking into account the publisher's Guide for Authors. I haven't read the paper but I suspect there is something special about these properties, otherwise why would you be reporting them? Historical Employment Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were frequently unionized and adequately compensated for their work cite sources.

Mazushicage

They will think you have no sense of purpose. Move 2. What is its main limitation? But do not over-inflate the manuscript with too many references — it doesn't make a better manuscript! Numerous readers of this section will help you identify the missing links and improve the technical style of this section. Why is it interesting?

Goramar

Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? I know there are professors in this country who 'ligate' arteries. The erythrocytes that are in the blood contain hemoglobin. Again, check the Guide for Authors and look at the number of keywords admitted, label, definitions, thesaurus, range, and other special requests. Use verbs instead of abstract nouns Instead of: take into consideration Write: consider 2. Another revision strategy is to learn your common errors and to do a targeted search for them [ 13 ].

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