For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. When a book, paper, or article has no identifiable author, cite it as Anon. Year, e. See Full Citation. If you want reference a paper found in another article, do so as follows: Driblick , in Oobleck If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin includes valuable references to Do not use footnotes in this class for citations.
You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves.
Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References". This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or if no author is listed the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.
Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount.
Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference. Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: Author. Author First author's last name, followed by the initials. If there are two authors, separate their names with "and".
For three or more authors, separate all but the last author's name with commas, and use "and" before the last author's name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. For example: Walters, R. Walters, R. Charniak, E. National Bureau of Standards. Some books whose copyright have expired are sometimes freely available on the internet. Memory of a tree festival. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing, Strindberg, August. Three plays: countess Julie; the Outlaw; the Stronger.
Boston: International pocket library, Book Chapters Include if available : family name s and first name s of author s of book chapter; title of book chapter; In, title of book; first and family name s of editor s and ed s in brackets; edition if not 1:st ; page numbers of chapter; place of publication and publisher; year of publication Example: Ellet, Elizabeth F.
By rail and stage to Galena. In Prairie state: impressions of Illinois, , by travelers and other observers, Paul M. Angle ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Journal Articles Include if available : family name s and first name s of author s. Title of articlle. Journal name. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. Graham, Elspeth and Boyle, Paul. Editorial introduction: re theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. International Journal of Population Geography.
Articles are assigned DOI-numbers by major academic publishers. If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date mainly articles that are freely available on the internet.
Today the publisher often states how to write the reference. Try our automatic generator and watch how we create APA citation format references for you in just a few clicks. In addition, headings provide readers with a glimpse to the main idea, or content, they are about to read. In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with different sizes and purposes: Level 1: The largest heading size This is the title of your paper The title should be centered in the middle of the page The title should be bolded Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary called title capitalization Level 2: Should be a bit smaller than the title, which is Level 1 Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Should be a bit smaller than Level 2 Indented in from the left side margin Use bold letters Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading.
All others should be lowercase. The exception is for pronouns as they should begin with a capital letter. Level 4: Should be a bit smaller than Level 3 Indented in from the left margin Bolded Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Level 5: Should be the smallest heading in your paper Indented Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading.
First and foremost, the only reason why any graphics should be added is to provide the reader with an easier way to see or read information, rather than typing it all out in the text. Lots of numbers to discuss? Try organizing your information into a chart or table. Pie charts, bar graphs, coordinate planes, and line graphs are just a few ways to show numerical data, relationships between numbers, and many other types of information. Instead of typing out long, drawn out descriptions, create a drawing or image.
Many visual learners would appreciate the ability to look at an image to make sense of information. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numerical order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Example: Figure 1, Figure 2, Table 1, Figure 3. Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text.
If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text.
However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Tables: Is there anything better than seeing a neatly organized data table? We think not! If you have tons of numbers or data to share, consider creating a table instead of typing out a wordy paragraph. Tables are pretty easy to whip up on Google Docs or Microsoft Word. Here are a few pointers to keep in mind: Choose to type out your data OR create a table. Choose one or the other.
If you choose to create a table, discuss it very briefly in the text. Table 1 is the first table discussed in the paper. Table 2 is the next table mentioned, and so on. A title. Create a brief, descriptive title. Capitalize the first letter for each important word.
For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, modified with italics substituted for underlining. Editorial introduction: re theorising population geography: mapping the unfamiliar. If possible always state the creator of the illustration in the reference list. Von Bertalanffy, L. References page in APA format D. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns.
When to use references Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. Author Title of journal this should be in italics [Online]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
If you use single spacing in one table, make sure all of the others use single spaces as well. Article title. Chapter title.
If there is no DOI-number you should give the URL-link of the article and in some cases access date mainly articles that are freely available on the internet. There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references. Night against procrastination [Photography]. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references. Some journals,e.
The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too. Instead of typing out long, drawn out descriptions, create a drawing or image. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. Hamburg: Sommer Publishing,
Structural equation modeling. They include the facility to incorporate 'author, date' insertions within your text, and to format reference lists automatically.
Author Title of journal this should be in italics [Online].