Adaptation is often misunderstood as written discourse constructed into visuals. It may not require a shift in genre but the fidelity topic is how the transition is done. Adaptation can be of many types and those include film-to-film adaptation, drama-to-film adaption, text-to-film adaptation and even comic strip-to-film adaptation etc. Adaptation is done for transposition practices, for editing pruning and adding , to provide commentary on the source text and making the source relevant and easy.
Current notion of adaptation is focused o providing new reinterpretations, new generic shift and so forth. It is to be cleared whether fidelity is the only point to justify a film adaptation or not. Traditional notion of justifying an adaptation has been such but that outlook requires rigorous modification.
Making a film is extremely complicated an issue and can hardly be done single- handedly. Therefore evaluating an adaptation requires attention to the process, method and ideology the way of making is to be approached equally. Then the assessments of good or bad and authenticity and fidelity come into concern. After that, polarization value judgment has to be has to be considered if there is any.
While adapting a book into a film, a director has to focus on the setting and the narrator of the book. The director has to convert images into scenes. A writer can provide a lucid picture with a few strokes of Asad 4 the pen.
A writer can easily make his character trod into the garage of Kolkata. But a filmmaker is required to go to the garage of Kolkata to shot that scene. Evidently adaptation is not an easy business. Therefore the techniques vary and so is the case with the types of adaptation. There are three types of adaptation. There is movement of proximity and there are also temporal changes. Like deconstruction, it tends to trace unsaid elements. Little of the original is identifiable.
Understanding of the original text is not mandatory at all in comprehending this type of adaptation. Coppola changed the setting from Africa to Vietnam War. Despite such clearly defined margins, the film critics always tend to engage the film and novel into a war. There was a word-image war literally whereas the critics referred to film by image. Speaking point blank, film and novel varies in the sectors mentioned below: 1. Production and Circulation; 2.
Formal Consideration and 3. Consumption In a nutshell, film and the original text from which the film s adapted are not substitute to each other. Rather they complement each other with alternative ideas and set objectives. Creators of both the book and film must be taken into consideration. In that sense, there is no clearly defined boundary of good or bad adaptation. Rather it must be kept in notice how the director has conveyed the feeling of the text. This must be the standard scale of measurement of a film adaption of any written discourse.
However, upon further analysis, we discover a complex weave of inter-textual references and careful choices made to produce a new, independent work. Like stubborn Bimal, the car is quite immortal-old modeled Ford with pre-historic structure and repulsive gesture. When Piyara Singh suggests Bimal to purchase a new one like him, Bimal compares new car with whore.
Bimal talks with Jagaddal, shares his emotions that he asks Jagaddal that if he is thirsty or feels regret for his inability to repair. The film presents five different journeys along with the daily scene of taxi stand and a free lancer assistant Sultan which are getting different notion for director where the director presents science fiction style and creates a unique production in its age. It was one of the earliest Indian films to portray an inanimate object, in this case an automobile, as a character in the story.
A comedy-drama film with science fiction themes, it achieves this through the use of sounds, recorded during post-production, to emphasize the car's bodily functions and movements. The following passengers are most likely new married couple but later, we come to know that they are convict. The lover flees out the girl who is married to another.
In this journey, the girl plays with the torn hood which opens the sky a little and the girl makes the hood larger by tearing it and this makes Bimal angry. In third journey, an old man is running rush to get the train and there is no taxi except Jagaddal. Chakravarty, ed. Cinema, One of the main critiques of popular Indian commercial cinema that Vasudevan is referring to emanates from members of the Calcutta Film Society, particularly the writings of film critic Chidananda Das Gupta.
Ashish Rajadhyaksha and Paul Willemen, eds. The Upanishads are philosophical and mystical texts of India, believed to have been composed from around B. From Carl Jung, Ghatak derived the idea of the archetype. In Bhattacharya and Dasgupta, eds. Scholars believe jatra to have originated in the 16th century with the Krishna Jatra of Chaitanya and his devotees. After World War I, nationalistic and patriotic themes were incorporated into jatra.
Mukanda Das and his troupe, the Swadeshi Jatra Party, performed jatras about colonial exploitation, the nationalist struggle, and the oppression of the feudal and caste system. Ghatak, Rows and Rows of Fences, pp. They may be used in all earnestness as essential categories and real options, but in fact they are largely pragmatic features of nation-building and mark the double or multiple register of a persuasive nationalist discourse.
Sufficiently historicized, both tradition and modernity can notate a radical purpose in the cultural politics of the third world. Certainly the term tradition as we use it in the present equation for India and the third world is not what is given or received as a disinterested civilizational legacy, if ever there should be such a thing. This tradition is what is invented in the course of a struggle.
In this sense it is a signifier drawing energy from an imaginary resource — the ideal tradition. Yet it always remains, by virtue of its strongly ideological import, an ambivalent and often culpable sign in need of constant historical interpretation so that we know which way it is pointing.
Ghatak references Brecht throughout Rows and Rows of Fences, especially pp. Throughout the essays and interviews in Rows and Rows of Fences, Ghatak discusses the impact of these theatrical and cinematic forms and styles on his work. The Durga-Puja festival is the most important Hindu religious festival in Bengal. For examinations of the relationship between music and image in film although primarily Hollywood film , see James Buhler, Caryl Flinn, and David Neumeyer, eds.
Caryl Flinn, Strains of Utopia, p. A khayal combines the classicism of dhrupada where the lyrics are lofty and are strictly developed without flippant embellishments and the romanticism of thumri light songs influenced by Urdu-Persian poetry and sung in Hindi.
Khayals may be in praise of gods or royal patrons; they may center on divine or human love; and they may be devotional, philosophical or seasonal. Tokyo: Zed Books Ltd. Ajantrik, Ghatak's first commercial release as a director, tells the story of a poor taxi driver who owned a 'living' car, making it one of the earliest Indian films to revolve around an inanimate object. The film had received a special entry for screening at the Venice Film Festival in Ajantrik movie poster 2.
Madhumati Ghatak had worked on this Hindi drama film as a writer along with Rajinder Singh Bedi. Directed by Bimal Roy, Madhumati was one of the earliest films to deal with reincarnation, which went on to inspire a number of movies to come, including Karz and Om Shanti Om.
MAdhumati movie poster 3.
He remains inquisitive about this phenomenon, however, drawing out the tension in Ajantrik between, on the one hand, a climate that encourages emotional attachment to machinery that constitutes livelihood, resulting in companionship, and on the other, a climate of constant upgrade that encourages discarding on a regular basis.
Ghatak, Rows and Rows of Fences, pp. It broke him. Yet it always remains, by virtue of its strongly ideological import, an ambivalent and often culpable sign in need of constant historical interpretation so that we know which way it is pointing. Boston: McGraw Hill, According to the noted Bengali poet and German scholar Alokranjan Dasgupta, "The merciless conflict of ethereal nature and mechanized civilization, through the love of taxi driver Bimal and his pathetic vehicle Jagaddal seems to be a unique gift of
It achieves this through the use of sounds, recorded during post-production, to emphasize the car's bodily functions and movements. That's part of the ruse: Ghatak really runs a tight ship, edited like a piece of music, with an utterly original way of gluing together his parodic elements. He continues: But these people do not have that difficulty. Ritwik Ghatak was a play writer in the beginning of his creative career and his first commercial release was Ajantrik The music sets the gorgeous environment which performs as magnet.
Adaptation is done for transposition practices, for editing pruning and adding , to provide commentary on the source text and making the source relevant and easy.
Deleuze, p. We can acknowledge that the spectator can open up a film by the desire to suspend and hold onto an image. These films destabilize the traditional binary schema gender and spatiality because, in the liminality of deterritorialization, the boundaries of gender, genre, and sexuality are blurred and continually negotiated. The fundamental difference between the two art forms was delineated.
It is to this day widely believed in Calcutta that the Communists and Congress joined hands to finish him off. A long period of stillborn projects, unfinished films, and delayed releases followed, which contributed to the alcoholism and nervous disorders that dogged Ghatak for the rest of his life. It may have been the source of inspiration for the American film The Reincarnation of Peter Proud and the Hindi film Karz , both of which dealt with reincarnation and have been influential in their respective cultures. The humanitarian Karim Hurray, his skin divers go through internationalized often. Caryl Flinn, Strains of Utopia, p.