I will then attempt to evaluate the pros, cons and practical applications of the Behaviorist and Psychodynamic approaches. He believed that the human being is born as a 'tabula rasa' Compare and Contrast the three perspectives in Sociology. Functionalism- A theoretical perspective, associated with Emile Durkheim, based on an analogy between social systems and organic systems.
The character of a society's various institutions must be understood in terms of the function each performs in enabling the smooth running of society as a whole. Stable and made of intellectual social structures that work in harmony. You could organize the details of the case into paragraphs and start each paragraph with an analytical sentence about how the theory relates to different aspects of the case. Some theory application papers require that you choose your own case an empirical phenomenon, trend, situation, etc.
Many students find choosing their own case rather challenging. Some questions to guide your choice are: Can I obtain sufficient data with relative ease on my case? Is my case specific enough? If your subject matter is too broad or abstract, it becomes both difficult to gather data and challenging to apply the theory. Is the case an interesting one? Professors often prefer that you avoid examples used by the theorist themselves, those used in lectures and sections, and those that are extremely obvious.
The UW libraries make your job easy: on the front page of the library website www. For example, if you are choosing a historical case, you might want to access newspaper articles. This has become increasingly easy to do, as many are now online through the UW library. If you are interested in interview or observational data, you might try to find books or articles that are case-studies on your topic of interest by conducting a simple keyword search of the UW library book holdings, or using an electronic database, such as JSTOR or Sociological Abstracts.
According to the symbolic interaction theory, people behave and communicate in a particular group in a proper way, the way that is suitable for that group. Sushma Tiwari,Faculty,Deptt. University,Rewa M. This theoretical paper is aiming the importance of human resource managers, HR practices and its influencing factors. In addition to that, this article also elaborates the upcoming challenges which are faced by 21st century HR managers. Through the examination of the scientific side of sociology, the understanding of the social world can be shown more clearly.
Within the study of sociology, there are two main branches: micro and macro. Micro sociology is looking at the individual and social interaction. Sometimes looking at other people, situations, and life events with different perspectives cause people to make snap judgments without factual knowledge.
This has important implications for the inclusion environmental measures. Figge et al. The first is to integrate measures in to existing four perspectives, the second is to develop a separate sustainability scorecard, and the third is to add an additional, fifth perspective to the traditional BSC.
Although we are all human beings, we do not always see the world the same way that others do. Even though not many are aware of the different ways they can see the world, there are three sociological perspectives. Theorists Herman and Reynolds note that this perspective sees people as being active in shaping the social world rather than simply being acted upon. George Herbert Mead — is considered a founder of symbolic interactionism though he never published his work on it LaRossa and Reitzes If you love books, for example, a symbolic interactionist might propose that you learned that books are good or important in the interactions you had with family, friends, school, or church; maybe your family had a special reading time each week, getting your library card was treated as a special event, or bedtime stories were associated with warmth and comfort.
Social scientists who apply symbolic-interactionist thinking look for patterns of interaction between individuals. Their studies often involve observation of one-on-one interactions.
For example, while a conflict theorist studying a political protest might focus on class difference, a symbolic interactionist would be more interested in how individuals in the protesting group interact, as well as the signs and symbols protesters use to communicate their message. The focus on the importance of symbols in building a society led sociologists like Erving Goffman — to develop a technique called dramaturgical analysis.
Studies that use the symbolic interactionist perspective are more likely to use qualitative research methods, such as in-depth interviews or participant observation, because they seek to understand the symbolic worlds in which research subjects live. Constructivism is an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be.
We develop social constructs based on interactions with others, and those constructs that last over time are those that have meanings which are widely agreed-upon or generally accepted by most within the society. There is no absolute definition of deviance, and different societies have constructed different meanings for deviance, as well as associating different behaviors with deviance.
In the United States, turning the wallet in to local authorities would be considered the appropriate action, and to keep the wallet would be seen as deviant. In contrast, many Eastern societies would consider it much more appropriate to keep the wallet and search for the owner yourself; turning it over to someone else, even the authorities, would be considered deviant behavior.
Criticism Research done from this perspective is often scrutinized because of the difficulty of remaining objective. Others criticize the extremely narrow focus on symbolic interaction.
Proponents, of course, consider this one of its greatest strengths. Sociological Theory Today These three approaches are still the main foundation of modern sociological theory, but some evolution has been seen. Structural-functionalism was a dominant force after World War II and until the s and s. These structures all have functions that change the way a society behaves. Politics, for example, maintains social order and control, but that will look different in the United States than in Japan or the United Kingdom.
Though their theories can seem very different, there are some similarities. Actions of the family members in Family Dinner Date video can be explained by each of these theories. Moreover, if you choose a case that disconfirms a theory, you should be careful that the case falls within the scope conditions see above of the given theory. Conflict theory is defined as a theory that focuses on societal groups competing for scarce resources. Constructivism is an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be.
According to the theory, if particular conditions are present or you see a change in a particular variable, what outcome should you expect? Functionalism- A theoretical perspective, associated with Emile Durkheim, based on an analogy between social systems and organic systems. The consultant: The consultant played the role of the interpreter as he was able to interpret the problem of turnover and how he was able to change the perspective of Gunter in a way that dissolved the problem. Any of these factors might become a topic of sociological study.
Clearly understanding all the parts of a theory helps you ensure that you are applying the theory correctly to your case. They lived too far from each other, spoke different languages, practiced different religions, and traded few goods. A theory in a sociological sense, is a way to explain social interactions and to create testable concepts about society.
The parts of society that Spence referred to were the social institutions, or patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs, such as government, education, family, healthcare, religion, and the economy. A common problem seen in theory application assignments is failing to substantiate claims, or making a statement that is not backed up with evidence or details "proof". He said that the intensity of the conflict varies depending on the emotional involvement of the parties, the degree of solidarity within the opposing groups, and the clarity and limited nature of the goals. The reader is left wondering whether a given statement represents the view of the theorist, the student, or an author who wrote about the case. A theory in a sociological sense, is a way to explain social interactions and to create testable concepts about society. I will then attempt to evaluate the pros, cons and practical applications of the Behaviorist and Psychodynamic approaches.