Provide the exact contact email address of the corresponding author s in a separate section. Correspondence: maximus gmail. Headings and Sub-headings You may insert up to 5 heading levels into your manuscript not more than for example: 3. Abstract As a primary goal, the abstract should render the general significance and conceptual advance of the work clearly accessible to a broad readership.
In the abstract, minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references. See Summary Table for abstract requirement and length according to article type. For Clinical Trial article types, please include the Unique Identifier and the URL of the publicly accessible website on which the trial is registered.
Keywords All article types: you may provide up to 8 keywords; at least 5 are mandatory. Text The entire document should be single-spaced and must contain page and line numbers in order to facilitate the review process.
Templates are available see above 2. Nomenclature The use of abbreviations should be kept to a minimum.
Non-standard abbreviations should be avoided unless they appear at least four times, and defined upon first use in the main text. Consider also giving a list of non-standard abbreviations at the end, immediately before the Acknowledgments. Equations should be inserted in editable format from the equation editor. Italicize Gene symbols and use the approved gene nomenclature where it is available. Include the date s of the study e. It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area. NOTE: For laboratory studies you need not report the date and location of the study UNLESS it is necessary information for someone to have who might wish to repeat your work or use the same facility. Most often it is not. If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility.
Top of Page Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls, treatments, variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured, what form the data take, etc.
Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. These observations are based on specific events that have already happened and can be verified by others as true or false.
Step 2. Form a hypothesis. Our observations tell us about the past or the present. As scientists, we want to be able to predict future events. We must therefore use our ability to reason. Scientists use their knowledge of past events to develop a general principle or explanation to help predict future events.
The general principle is called a hypothesis. The type of reasoning involved is called inductive reasoning deriving a generalization from specific details. In other words, there should be a way to show the hypothesis is false; a way to disprove the hypothesis. Some mammals have two hindlimbs would be a useless hypothesis. There is no observation that would not fit this hypothesis! All mammals have two hindlimbs is a good hypothesis.
We would look throughout the world at mammals. When we find whales, which have no hindlimbs, we would have shown our hypothesis to be false; we have falsified the hypothesis. When a hypothesis involves a cause-and-effect relationship, we state our hypothesis to indicate there is no effect.
A hypothesis, which asserts no effect, is called a null hypothesis. For instance, the drug Celebra does not help relieve rheumatoid arthritis. Step 3. Do we start thinking of some type of formal process that will answer all our scientific questions or problems? When I was in school many years ago, we were taught that scientists go through a series of steps to find a solution to a problem or find evidence to support or disprove a theory.
It all seemed rather cold, and formal. This paper describes the steps of the scientific method, and its application in a real-world scenario we experienced. Step 1: Formulating a Problem Formulating a problem can range from simple to difficult solutions.
Definitions, then, establish the way in which people communicate ideas. They set parameters for a given discourse, which is why they are so important. Tip When writing definition essays, avoid terms that are too simple, that lack complexity. Definitions of concepts, rather than objects, are often fluid and contentious, making for a more effective definition essay. Writing at Work Definitions play a critical role in all workplace environments.
Take the term sexual harassment, for example. Sexual harassment is broadly defined on the federal level, but individual companies may have additional criteria that define it further for a particular work setting. Knowing how your workplace defines and treats all sexual harassment allegations is important.
The Structure of a Definition Essay The definition essay opens with a general discussion of the term to be defined. You then state as your thesis your definition of the term. The rest of the essay should explain the rationale for your definition. Instead, consider the context in which you are using the word. Often words take on different meanings depending on the context in which they are used.
For example, the ideal leader in a battlefield setting could likely be very different than a leader in an elementary school setting. If context is missing from the essay, the essay may be too short or the main points could be confusing or misunderstood.
This handout provides a summary of the steps that are used in pursuing scientific research. These observations should be objective, not subjective. Does the abstract title describe the subject being written about?